There are several variables that an attacker can leverage for environmental reconnaissance when planning an attack.
These include network environments such as wired or wireless, internal and external, and virtual or cloud.
Many organizations use a combination of these environments and should be proactive in conducting their own environmental reconnaissance by conducting site surveys to identify any weaknesses and improve security where necessary.
Wireless networking is more susceptible to attacks than wired because of the way in which information is transmitted. In wired environments, traffic is exchanged via cables such as ethernet or fiber
with wireless. That same traffic is not restricted to physical wires and has the potential to be seen or sniffed.
One security measure to prevent this type of eavesdropping is to use a virtual private network, or VPN.
VPN send information encrypted over the network, which is essential for protecting sensitive information.
Rogue access points are a common security threat toe wireless environments. They are unauthorized wireless access points added maliciously by an attacker or carelessly by an insider. If a rogue AP is maliciously created, users may unwittingly connect to it, making their communications vulnerable to capture
continuously monitoring wireless networks, verifying every access point is legitimate can prevent hijacking or eavesdropping attacks.
Disabling wireless access points from broadcasting their S S I. D or network name is a precautionary security measure. It makes it more difficult to discover or connect to the AP when the name isn't readily available.
Additional best practices for securing wireless environments include
using protocols to securely authenticate users. W p A, which was improved a W p a. To and now w P a three
implementing 802.1 Export security to validate and authenticate clients using an authenticator device and authentication server such as Radius or E A P
and Mac filtering to limit access by device. Mac address.
Virtual environments are becoming more common for hosting, service is and resource is
typically one or more virtual machines or via mes, are running a physical system and managed by a single hyper visor.
While the VM zehr running separately from the physical host an operating system. The same security measures are required, like disabling unnecessary service's and applying patches, updates and configuration policies.
There are security threats with virtual environments such a SVM escape and VM sprawl.
Veum Escape is when an attacker writes code, enabling a guest OS to break out of encapsulation and interact with or attack. It's managing hyper visor.
VM sprawl is when the number of virtual machines on a network reaches a point where it's too much for any administrator to effectively manage
both physical and virtual environment. Security concerns can be mitigated by configuring systems properly applying updates and patches regularly and scanning for vulnerabilities. Additionally, using traffic monitoring tools to verify its security measures like network segmentation and least privilege of controls are working as intended.
External environments like the Extra Net or *** Z, can be more challenging to secure than internal environments because of their accessibility. Outside of the internal network,
external networks need carefully monitored with restricted entry points into internal systems to prevent an attacker from accessing proprietary or sensitive information. Internal and external networks should be in separate network partitions, with access controls in place to restrain an audit. Traffic between them
regularly testing access controls is a best practice to ensure external users accessing external resource is are securely off, indicated an authorized and that least privilege is appropriately managing access
and the use of VP ends to encrypt the traffic exchange between networks.
Monitoring tools are another essential piece for inspecting traffic between internal and external networks and alert when anomalies or unusual behavior is detected.
Best practices for securing physical and virtual environments can also be applied to cloud environments.
Cloud environments also have their own security concerns stemming from data being hosted in the cloud, not locally.
While it can provide a great deal of flexibility, scalability and cost savings, there are considerations with storing data in a cloud environment.
Depending on the cloud solution used. Securing the data may be managed by the Cloud Service provider or C. S. P S, not the data owner.
C. S P S may have data from multiple organizations, which makes data leakage a risk with multi tendency.
This is a threat of tenants on the same cloud, having access to data other than their own or old tenant data exposed to new tenants.
Other areas to be mindful of with Claude environments includes inadequate user authentication, poor redundancy or fault tolerance and issues with data ownership like misused and jurisdiction.
Environmental reconnaissance helps identify potential vulnerabilities and weaknesses. Attackers perform reconnaissance activities as well as an effort to scope in attack surface and locate potential exploits,
thinking like an attacker when conducting site surveys and scanning environmental variables can guide mitigation needs and ideally, proactively secure the networks.