Hi, guys. Welcome back. I'm Katherine MacGyver. In today's episode 10 defining the voice of the process in this module, we're going to talk about the voice of the process process. We're gonna go over process entitlement, and I'm going to introduce the idea of CPK and PPK.
So thus far, we've talked a lot about the voice of the customer and the voice of the business. Now we're gonna talk about the voice of the process. So to understand it, think of it like a hierarchy. The customer is what we want to do because remember, the customers are the ones that define value. And we, as the organization, create value
the businesses or what we're willing to do. So this is really important if you think about it from a financial or regulatory perspective.
But the process is the voice of the processes. What can we actually dio? So with that, there are two facets. As we're talking about the voice of the process. The 1st 1 is process entitlement. So this is your best case scenario.
What you see when you have your process, entitlement
is this is on any given day, the absolute best that your process could do so. The example that I'm going to give you is, as I am chronically late to work.
Just own that s o remember we talked about my voice of the customer, how I wanted a Ferrari, because it's going to get me to work on time. So now we're gonna talk about it from an aspect of some days. It takes me 17 minutes to get to work
and is it's because, you know, I leave at 807 and I hit the perfect pocket and I don't have any stoplights
and other days it takes me 23 minutes to get to work. I haven't changed anything other than, you know, maybe a 32nd delay getting to my 807 leave time. But there is natural variation within the process.
It's important for us as lean six sigma practitioners toe understand, process, entitlement. Because when you see when you hear process entitlement, what you should be thinking is Hawthorne effect. So what the Hawthorne Effect is is there was a
rope plant at the turn of the century. Frederick Taylor, If you remember
from Yellow Belt and our scientific excuse me, our history of we talked about the father of scientific management. So what verdict Taylor found is that people work better when the boss is watching. And he studied this and it was called the Hawthorne Effect because it was at the Hawthorne a plant. But if you think about it in your own aspect,
if you imagine how hard you work when the boss watches as compared to how hard you work when, say, the bosses out of the country these air where you're going to start seeing process entitlement, it doesn't necessarily mean that there's any change to the work that you're doing. It's just for some reason this day it goes better
from a practitioner standpoint. It's important for you to know that because you're going to see the Hawthorne effect in two places.
One when you're trying to do your current state process mapping. So we talked a little bit about it and Yellow Belt. We will talk more about it in the future, But the idea of what is actually happening versus what the boss thinks should be happening. You'll also see people overstate their effectiveness. Because of that,
the oven place that you'll see the Hawthorne effect
is actually in your benefits calculation. So
say I come in and I Syria it you doing your job every single day and for some reason,
some reason you're able to get your job done sooner. Did I change anything in your process from a process improvement standpoint? No, But I did. I see a benefit where we had a shorter cycle time or an increased through print? Absolutely.
So you need to be really careful as we start talking about project benefits
to be mindful of. Is this really a benefit or are you seeing the Hawthorne effect? Because people are being paid attention to but process entitlement? The absolute best case scenario a process can perform without any changes whatsoever.
So with that, the next important key piece of the voice of the process is a heck of a tongue twister. Cp cpk and PP PP K. I promise you I will twist those up as we talk through them. So both of these are measures of process capability. So this these are ways that we quantify
is or is not able to perform within customer specifications. So CP and CPK is customer driven. This is going to be capability. So we're really gonna focus quite a bit on what the customer wants from here. And PP and PPK is current state. This is our process current performance,
so you'll notice there's a K in here.
The only difference between CP and CPK and PP and PP cake is K is a centralizing factor. So what this tells us is is if we're looking at K, we're looking at a normal distribution as we go into our distribution curves. Later in the course, it will make a little bit more sense. But for your use as a green belt,
you are primarily going to be living
in the CPK PPK or centralized at it because normal distributions are going to be your get them.
So when we talk about C p. C P. K, well, we're going to talk about is whether or not our process is able to produce within the customer specifications. So a way to think of this is if if you go through your absolute best case scenario, you remember your process entitlement,
and you can make a cheeseburger in 12 minutes.
If me, as your customer comes to you and says I want a cheeseburger in 10 minutes. You are not going to have the ability to produce within the customer specifications.
So you do need to have an upper and a lower control limit on this so that we know what the target is for the customer s. So when we talk about upper and lower control limits and we'll talk a little bit more about data and metrics. But we we really want to understand What is that measurement? So when we start talking about our operational definitions
on and we say you can have a lower control limit of zero,
so zero is always better, or you can have an infinitely high one where bigger is always better. It depends on what your Chinese and measure.
But CP tells us whether or not what we're currently doing can meet the customer's requirements. So it's whether or not that processes capable. We're talking about our our process entitlement here, and then we talk about CPK.
It's whether or not it's capable and meeting a target. So if that if where you're working is central or centered between your upper and your lower control limits,
normal distribution data. So then what we're gonna talk about PP PP K PPK is going to be your get down. This is where your process is currently performing it. So this isn't your best case. We're not talking about your entitlement. Now we're going to be talking about what's happening today. So
what's happening when the bosses in Aruba compared to when the boss is staring right at you,
this tends to be a more long term measure. And the reason why is because it's based in reality. So your CPK is what your customer wants. Can you do what your customer wants? Your PPK is what is actually happening today. So some of the things that are really exciting about this is
these air the same formulas. Except for this one, we're going to use Sigma,
um, for our capability and for our performance. So are really time we're gonna use population. So the whole enchilada on this so easy to remember we're going to go through those formulas in our next module. But now you understand we have a CPK and PPK, and you're gonna ask yourself, what am I going to do with this information?
So the first thing is, do nothing.
This might be part of your control plan. You might want to re measure this and be like, Yep, we're where we want to be. The next one is changing specifications. So if for some reason you are outside of your cpk,
um, ask your customer, do you have to have your 10 minute cheeseburger or could it be a 12 minute cheeseburger?
Um, this the third ice aspect is centering the process, so we'll talk quite a bit about statistical process control a little bit later on. But when we say centering the process, what we mean is when you have an upper and a lower control limit, finding the average and getting your process to work towards that average
in addition to you're gonna want to reduce very ability
and then you can accept losses. There are times when losses are an inevitable part of the process and just say yeah and put that in with your doing nothing.
So today we went over process entitlement, and we talked about the introduction to CPK and PPK in our next module were actually going to calculate CPK and PPK. So I will see you guys there