so talking about some of our circuit switching connections, we have what are called dedicated least lines. Now dedicated least lines are actual physical line cables that are leased by a business or a company, or sometimes even an individual
who wants to have a dedicated connection from one point to another.
Now these dedicated least lines are also known as our point to point connective ity. It runs over our layer two technologies or data link layer,
and it perfect provides a point to point
11 company or dedicated person used to from one location to another location. Now these dedicated least lines are typically used as some backbone infrastructure lines. This allows us to have a backbone line that we can send a lot of data across
without having to worry about interference or use from other other customers. Other businesses, other people.
Because this is this is our dedicated line that we're leasing. No one else is going to just be able to use this line. It is dedicated for us, of course, that comes with a cost.
now, these dedicated least lines allow us to use multiplexing, which is a layer to technology that allows us to send multiple multiple streams of data over one line. So if we just had one line and we way said, Oh, well, we can we have a dedicated least line that we can send our data over?
Well, we're not gonna be able to send very much data over that single line if we can only send a single stream of data
we can use multiplexing and weaken. Send data from all the users in our office rather than just one single computer. So the static a dedicated Lisa line doesn't mean a line, a single line that plugs into our computer. It's a backbone line that carries a lot of information, and it can perform multiplexing
to allow for multiple streams of data on this one line.
Now, with a lot of our backbone, our backbone lines, these will a lot of times B R B, either co axle or fiber cable. Because these co actual in these fiber cable ings are
especially, our co ax cable is a bit more robust on our 55 or cabling is going to be a lot faster, so they're typically going to be our co axle or five are typically going to be composed of either co axle or fiber cables
on. But those cables can be used in our other technologies We're going to talk about as well.
Now these dedicated least lines typically have. We'll have to sending cables and to receiving cables for each line that we're coming in. So rather than having sending and receiving on the same line, will have inside of our dedicated least line will have to sending into receiving cables.
Now, what are our different layers of our dedicated least lines Now, with our dedicated least lines, we have t Won Hee won t three and e three lines. Now R T and R E are going to be sort of on the same level.
However, T is typically our North American standard, and E is our European standards,
so you'll see the tea lines more common say in the United States, and the lines will be more common in European countries.
So our T line is going R T one line is going to be a 24 channel line, and so it's going to be our lines that are composed of 24 separate channels and these channels combined to form what's called a D s one or a data signal one.
Now, this D s one is simply describing the type of the type of signal that's being trans transmitted over those lines. Eso If you see a saying a question on an exam, what type of what type of dedicated or what type of line would carry A. D. S one
and you see a T one u C. A. T one as an answer There.
You want to choose t one but know that D S one is not a particular type of cable or particular category of cable or line or connective ity, but Maur the It's the collection of all of those 24 channels
combined into one date, a signal that we call D S one.
Now Our T one lines are going to be again 24 channels and we're going to be able to pass a 193 bit frame, something we talked about Our frame is how much data we can send essentially in one packet. How big the boxes that we can ship with our carrier.
So they're gonna be sending a 193 bit frame.
At each frame we can transfer at 64 are our frames. We could transfer at 64 kilobytes per second per channel. So we have our 24 channels times 64 kilobytes per second with our 190 bit frame. And all of that together is going to give us with our T one lines,
max speed of 1.544 megabits per second.
So T one dedicated least line with 24 channels is going to have a 1.544 megabits per second bandwidth bandwidth speed.
Then we have our European standard. We have our e one lines, and these air goingto have 32 channels, but we use 30 for data. The other two are channels that are used to help for synchronization and making and keeping track of everything. But we have 32 channels total
and we're going to be pushing through data at 2.0 for eight megabits per second. So hee won lines are 32 channels and 2.48 megabits per second.
Next we have our tea. Three lines are T three lines are going to be 67 are 672 channels and we're gonna be pushing through at 2.48 megabits per second. And with our T three lines, you may also see
data signal three. But again, data signal three is just a combination of all of the different channels on our T one line. All of the data combined together to form our D s. Three signal
transferring a max rate of 2.48 megabits per second,
and then we Lastly, we have our e three r E three connection and R E three cable is going to be a 512 channels with a max rate of 34.4 megabits per second. Let's take a look again at the the idea of our dedicated least lines. Now
we're talking about our dedicated least lines, and we say, Oh, they could be co axle or fiber. Typically, we're not saying that
we're not saying that co actual and fiber are only used for dedicated least lines. Remember, when we're gonna we're gonna be talking about our wind technologies and a lot of Norway and technologies use a lot of different mediums. Mediums are the physical cables, the physical connections between one point another.
Now these different physical. These different physical connections can be used for a lot of different types of land technologies that could be used for a lot of different types of connections. So don't just associate co axel in fiber with dedicated least lines.
There's gonna be a lot more types of connective it, ese
that we're gonna talk about for co Axl and fiber
are different mediums, depending on the type of technologies we have it either end the type of transmitters and receivers that we're using to push our data over. They form at the data differently and how they form at our data.
A lot of times changes dramatically the how much were able to push through it once.
So keep that in mind if you weaken a lot of times we can take, we could take existing infrastructure, take existing wiring, and we could change some of our devices, and we we would be transmitting data differently across those lines.
So try, try tow truck. As we're going through these different land technologies.
Try to understand how,
even though We're using the same medium, even though we are using co axle or fiber or telephone lines or radio signals, they could be formatted differently in the way we're sending data across them differently can make all the difference.