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Section 2 continues its focus on Cryptographic tools with an in-depth introduction and analysis of Symmetric Encryption. The Symmetric Encryption discussion opens by reviewing the usage of random numbers, explaining what Replay Attack is, the importance of unique information on data packets and in sequencing and defining key terms including Nonce and Key Generation. Then, you're introduced to Symmetric Encryption with a basic summary of how it works, what ciphers are, the different types of Symmetric Ciphers, what happens with block ciphers, and what the difference means to encryption and decryption as a process. As a penetration tester, you must know the difference between confusion and diffusion. You'll observe how that correlates to how algorithms work and the importance of strong math in configuring algorithms. And you'll learn what happens as algorithms are used and what you need to look for in your testing results.