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Remember this statement: Plaintext +initiation vector+algorithm+key = CipherText. This is the premise and basic formula for how encryption services provide us with privacy. That's the opening segment of Part 3.4's discussion on Privacy and Confidentiality in Cryptography. You'll learn all about the starting point of privacy and confidentiality being Plaintext, what it means and why it's important. The remainder of this lesson explores initiation vector (IV) in detail. You'll explore why algorithm and key are essential to the process of IV and ultimately all about CipherText. As a penetration tester, you must know how these components work in Cryptography, what they do, and what impact they have on the Cryptography process.