Hi. Welcome back to the network plus Certification video series on Mike Redmond, master trainer here to help guide you through your successful journey of becoming a network plus certified technician.
We're gonna walk through a wide variety of topics, starting with basic network concepts all the way through network management and security.
In this segment, we're going to talk about cabling and topology. I'll explain the different types of networked apologies, describe the different types of network cabling and explain the IEEE network standards.
The network topology is the way that cables and other pieces of hardware connect to one another. We have two primary different apologies to deal with
physical topology. This is referring to how cables and devices are physically connected together and logical topology. This will refer to how devices connect to each other with regards
data flow. You'll also hear this referred to is signaling types.
The 1st 2 apologies were running to look at her. The oldest of the topology is starting with the bust apology. It's a single bus cable, a single connecting line that connects all computers in a row. The range apology
uses that same single cable, except now it's connected in a circle or one
circular ring still connecting all computers in that one circle.
The data flow of these apologies are near identical. It flows from computer to computer along either the bus or the circle. However, with a bust apology,
you're required to use special pieces called Terminators at both ends. You have to terminate both ends to prevent data reflection with rink apologies. Since it's one continuous circle, there's no need for termination.
So there's a primary problem that we had with these apologies. If the cable is ever broken, the entire network stops working.
This is where we get this stark apology. A start. Apology has a central connection for all computers to talk to
highly fault tolerant, which is the major benefit over the bus in the ring topology. However, it wasn't very successful early on, mainly because it was extremely difficult to redesign those early bus and ring hardware pieces as well as it was and is the most expensive of the apologies.
if you will, between a full starred, messed apology and where we were, we had hybrid, too. We had hybrid apologies, thes combined, the physical topology or the cable with a signaling topology, or how the signal traveled
the line electronically
with the star ring topology. You still have the physical star, however. You have a signaling ring.
The ring is shrunk down into the hub with the star bust apology again. You have the physical star, however, the data or the data flow is on a signaling bus. We call these bus lines segments. All we've done is shrunk down the segment
So next we have the MASH and point to multi point apologies with the mess topology. Every computer connects to every other computer via two or more Route two types of messed apologies you'll need to understand or the partial messed apology
were. At least two machines have a redundant connection to each other
or the full mast apology. Where every computer is connected directly to every other computer. This is theme, most redundant and fault, tolerant apology. However again, it is extremely expensive,
with the point to multi point apologies. You have a single system that is acting as the common source you no longer using a hub in the center. However, the data flow is relatively the same.
And then the last apology to understand would be the point. The point. This is simply to computers connected directly together. There's no need for a central computer or a central hub. You can accomplish this either wired or wirelessly.
So understand the apology is really only one feature of a network. Other network features are What is the cable made of? How long can it be
and how the machines decide which machine should send data and when.
So now we need to discuss the networked apologies. This is a practical application of topology and other technologies that comprise the network. Whether it's a 10 based tea or a 10 gigabit base LX,
it all starts with the cabling,
starting with co axial cable. This is what a lot of those early bus in ring two apologies ran on. It has a central conductor wire surrounded by an insulating material and then that is surrounded by a braided metal shield.
And then that braided metal shield is been surrounded by plastic, highly resistant to electromagnetic interference.
This is the same type of cabling that your cable company use,
so to connect co axel cables you used being C connectors and vampire taps. The vampire taps were, if you needed to add another no to the ring or to the bus. You would use a vampire tap to tap through the shield down to the solid core
to provide that computers. Connective ity.
The second type of connector used with co ax is the F type Screw on connector.
This is probably the connector that you see in your home from your cable company or satellite provider.
So co ax or co axial cable is rated by our G's radio grades. Originally developed for the military to primary standards RG six, which is predominant today in RG 59 cable, which we very rarely see anymore.
Co Axial Cable is also rated by its resistance or its own rating. Both RG six and RG 59 R rated at 75 homes.
Here's a look at a co axel splitter. The primary co axel line comes in, and you would then split off into two different directions. Understand, When you use the splitter, you're also splitting the signal. The two are weaker than the hole in this case,
and to connect two pieces of co ax cable, you would use a barrel connector.
Next, we have twisted pair,
the most common networking cabling. It's twisted pairs of cables bundled together. The twists are to reduce crosstalk interference.
Two types of twisted pair shield a twisted pair ar STP. The shielding is there to again protect from AM I needed in some locations, for instance, Ah, data center near an airport might want to consider shield a twisted pair versus unshielded
twisted pair. The most common is the IBM Type one cable.
The unshielded twisted pair again is twisted pairs of wires with a plastic jacket, much cheaper, then shielded twisted pair. This is also what your telephone systems use.
Twisted pair cabling comes with cat ratings or category ratings rated by how many megahertz each can handle the network. Plus examination expects you to know and understand the different cat ratings of twisted pair cabling
and their maximum bandwidths
foryou. TP unshielded twisted pair the maximum band with his near 100 megabits. Now understand that band with Is he a maximum amount of data that will go through the cable per second? It was originally thought that 100 megahertz translated to
100 megabits. However, now we know that
for instance, with Cat six, cable 500 megahertz will fit 10,000 megabits or 10 gigs of data on the line.
It's fairly easy to identify which type of cabling that you're using. It's going to be on the box when you purchase it. If you were to purchase it in bulk like this or it'll be stamped on the cable itself,
So what Twisted pair? You will have two primary types of connectors that R J 11 which uses two pairs of wires for your telephones, and the R J 45 which uses four pairs of wires. This is what Ethernet networks of today use.
The next type of cabling we need to discuss is fiber optic fiber. Optic cable transmits data via light not affected at all. By am I excellent for long distance transmissions,
for instance, it's single copper cables, works up to ah, few 100 leaders, whereas a single fiber optic cable works up to 10 kilometers.
So five block the cable is made up of four parts. The core, which is the glass fiber itself, the cladding, which reflects the signal down the fiber, the buffer, which gives it some strength, and the insulating jacket, which protects the inner components
toe. Identify what type of fiber optic cable you're dealing with. You'll need to understand the two number designator its designated by the core and the cladding measurements.
You'll most often see fiber optic used in cable pairs, one for sending and then one for receiving.
And generally it will be connected together. Kind of like a lamp cord.
So there are two different media to transmit data through fiber optics. First with L. E. D's light emitting diets. This type of cabling is called multi mode cables. The next type of transmitter would be the lasers. These are single mode fibers
using single mode fiber prevents modular distortion. This is a problem that we have with multi mode fiber, primarily used for high data transfer rates over extremely long distances. 1550
So how large is a man? A meter,
And just like oh, Axl and twisted pair fiber optics have their own special connectors s tes s sees and Elsie type connectors. S T connectors are a bayonet style SC. They're more of a push in style and Elsie connectors are what's used for duplex cabling.
Here's a look at each of them from left to right
S, T S, C and Elsie fiber optic connectors.
There are some other types of cables that you should be familiar with as you prepare for the network, plus examination that, like classic Serial Rs 2 32 recommended standard dates back to around 1969. Most common serial ports used
a nine pin male d sub miniature connector,
extremely slow data rate around 56 bits per second and on Lee capable of being used for point to point connections.
Next is the parallel cable little better than the RS proceeding. Now you can get up to two megabits per second. However, it is still limited to point to point.
So all cables have a fire rating. This is standardized by the underwriters laboratory and National Electronic Code or the any. See those fire ratings are polyvinyl chloride,
planum and riser. PVC ratings have no significant fire protection with them at all. As a matter of fact, when they burn, they let off toxic few planum rating cables. You don't have the same toxic fume. However, you would not be able to tell really the difference between
a P B C cable and a plan, um, cable just by looking at it.
And they are about three times the cost of PBC cabling. Riser cables are raiding cables for vertical runs, and we'll discuss vertical runs in the later module,
so these standards are sent by a consortium, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, or the IEEE.
The 802 working group was established in February of 1980. It defines the frames, speeds, distances and types of cable ings for networks. The IEEE 12 84 committees sets the standards for parallel communications.
The network, plus examination, expects you to know and understand the different IEEE designators for each of the subcommittee's. I've highlighted the ones here that you should pay particular attention to.
You'll want to pay particular attention to you TP. That's where the hardest company and network plus exam questions come into play. And don't forgive to give co axel STP and fiber optic a quick pass just to make sure that you understand him and make sure you understand the reasons for picking its type
of cabling over the other.
Well, they have it. Pretty simple, right? I know it could be a lot of information coming at you all at once. But don't worry. I'm here to guide you every step of the way. You can do this. Just remember, study hard. Lots of practice questions,
and you will succeed.
You will become a network plus certified technician. I'll see you next time.