10 hours 41 minutes
so in this block will talk about
the BIOS or the basic input output service.
So the Bible's eventually essentially a program that starts to seep. You had talked to hardware devices, so
So we worked our way. So we have the CPU, the CPU boots up. The is the brains, the computer Peter boots up.
It has all these other things that has to talk to. Has the keyboard it needs to work with has the hard drive. And this all has to happen before you can install an operating system, we need to know. Do we have to see RAM drive? Do you have a USB port? Because how else are we gonna get
an operating system on their to do to do the rest of stuff? That's where BIOS comes in. Is that interface
that very first interface between
the hardware devices?
And it's what lets you configure them at the very basic level before anything else happens.
So all all motherboards will have some form of bias,
has to how you can't just go right from the metal, too
operating system. There's something that needs to do that initial communication between all the devices
so supports hard drives display devices cause you need to see on the screen when it boots up. That's how you know you'll see
Ah pop up. That says, Okay, this is what kind of processor I have. You need to be diagnosed before an operating system comes. So display devices, but very basic you're not gonna be doing
You're not doing games in the bios or not.
You're not usually writing to the file system in the biosphere, just identifying all the hardware for the OS to take over,
identifying the hardware in the basic configurations.
So it's not gonna go format. The hard drivers say, OK, I have a hard drive at this address. I heard this. It's this kind of hard drive. It's gonna it's gonna read that vendor i d. It's going to say I have this much ram. It's gonna take all the information and then usually performed some kind of test and then pass it off the operating system.
why would we not store the BIOS on the operating system?
Well, if we don't have an operation yet, we have a brand new computer.
We don't have an operating system, are not gonna be in a boot, because we don't We don't know howto we don't know how to configure everything. Um,
or we don't even have a hard drive yet. Maybe we don't have a hard. Maybe I wouldn't have a c ram drive so we don't have an operating system. Um,
so you know, so it can't be stored in the operating system. Um, it's one of the reason we have a bios
Why? We're not starting our system, ram.
Well, because that gets deleted every time we reboot.
As soon as you lose power,
our ram goes away. So that's that's not place and Ram. Something that we're gonna change out. You know, if we upgrade Ram, do we have to do a new BIOS?
So the Bible's exists in same for the hard graft. We change the hard drive. We format a hard drive. We lose all that information
about our base about our basic system. So
So the bios is stored on rum chips on the actual motherboard. So
the motherboards, your there is basically was gonna gets what houses, houses, the CPU.
It's what provides the pathways to all the other devices. So That is where our bios it's
so note buy houses were going very based off the vendor. They're going a different menu options. We're all gonna have a lot of similarities.
They're gonna vary based off what physical features the mother might have. The mother word might have USB ports. It might have USB three ports. It might have
scuzzy might have, you know, enhanced form of hard drive capability. So they're not all gonna be the same. Some of them have WiFi now on the motherboard. So that's something that the bio seems to know about, so they're not all gonna have the same options
now. Their story, the bios itself is stored on rahm chips,
which cannot be modified once been saved. So the base is right there on the rob.
It's maintains the bios after, if you lose power. So
the bios is still on the motherboards.
Uh, I have out of the case there. They still have their bios. Okay. And the last settings they had from when I booted them uppers are still there because they're stored on these ram chips.
Now the sea most consider. That's kind of like
the hard drive
for the bios. That's where it's gonna save the configuration settings. Because so you're Rahm is read only. So the sea most is where you're gonna save the settings for the bios.
Now we're still talking very basic
level function we're setting.
It could be like, OK, do I enable this hard driver? Do I not? And he will. This heart drugs are disabled.
enable or disabled the neck?
Those are some of the things. So if you diss enable the nick in the BIOS, the operating system is never gonna know that Nick existed. So
So it's like the Knicks
isn't even physically there because the BIOS takes precedence over the operating system.
Now, the newer versions you can flashed update there,
uh, update the code for the BIOS. What happens is technology is changing so fast, and they're adding a lot more functionality into bios that
it's necessary to be au update that basic driver code in the bio so that newer devices are supported
more often not is to support newer si pues that are compatible with the existing socket on the motherboard. So you have a news kind of CPU that will work in
in that socket. We need to update the bios to tell. Okay,
you know how to use this kind of the CPU? It's OK. But with this and, you know, go along your merry way
based, like a driver for the new CPU.
So how do we get into the bio? So the BIOS lives on the motherboard. We booked the motherboard, and we want to be able to go in and set our various options.
Well, a test of our hardware is functioning, right, Like our ram, or we want change. Where's device we boot off from? This also varies. It's not the same. It's gonna be different. Um, lot systems. It's F two. Sometimes it could be escaped.
Sometimes it could be the delete key. I've seen
f one. It's it.
It's average. Not very standard. I've seen delete probably one of the most often ones, but happens there'll be a short period when the bios confirm computer first boots up and I'll show you a screen that basically does.
I'm your BIOS. You know, this is how much room you have installed. This what kind of processor?
And then it's gonna have a little flash real quick. That says.
Press this button to enter the BIOS,
and sometimes you'll see it enough time to say, Okay, that's too okay. I have two or more times than not. You'll see itself to you gonna have to. It's too late, and you'll have to
par off the PC to the part, the power back on and have to to get into the bios if for some reason you can never see what it says, some bosses do a full screen logo again. Check your motherboard manual or go on to the Internet to see OK, what is the key to get into the BIOS?
So now we're in the BIOS and we'll change our setting. So here's a very common
bios screen, so the menu options.
It's our standard features. We have advanced integrated peripherals, which will be like our sound card
Oh, our neck. That would be an integrated peripheral
part management set up
being on to say OK, throttle the processor under these conditions, or
turn off the PC if it gets too hot. Because modern motherboards have sensors to tell you the temperature
on save power by going to sleep after 30 minutes of no activity.
Ah intelligent tweaker. Another thing for just changing settings on the fly and then being on a stage, you can also set passwords
for okay. We don't want anyone to be able come and change the bile because that's dangerous. They could make serious changes, have been getting bios. They can change the boot order, and they could boot off USB stick and then get to my hard drive. That's bad. So we can set a password to protect our bio so you can't get into
you can't ever change settings without knowing it,
and you can even set us a password to even be able to turn the system on.
We don't mean by physically because someone will always be able to hit the power button to turn the system on, but
t successfully boot the system. So the sister, come on, I'll ask you for a passport. If you don't know it won't
won't boot the system. You'll shut itself off automatically. Or just
or just keep asking for a new one
and our standards sayings we've got okay, so here we're looking at these are all our various hard drives. You, the channels for the hard drives are called. So this one you can see, we have,
Ah, see, Ron Drive installed. Says CD DVD.
And then it shows us that we have a hard drive installed. And this is just the model number for the hard drive. Usually, you could put that into the Internet, would tell you exactly what hard drive that was. Or you could
open the case and look at the markings on the actual
Um, so if we have a floppy drive, we can enable Or disabled hero can set What kind of floppy drive it is. Okay. It might be a
older one, or might be. Ah, you're one that supported the higher size, even how rare that was. Um, And then you can also set the date and time here,
and then this whole town is a very common one too. So halt on means Okay. What? I'm booting
If I see an error, what do I do?
So in this case,
if I'm boring the bios and I see any kind of air
but a missing keyboard
that I'm gonna I'm gonna haul, I'm not gonna finish booting. I'm gonna say, Hey,
red flag, I need I need help. Something's wrong and
that could be the Ramdin pass. It's validation check.
It could be hard. Drive's missing. That says, I'm not gonna keep booting cause further problems. But
it's a pretty common thing, especially for running a server that you might not have a keyboard attached.
So that's why we're gonna say in this case,
okay, if the if the error is no keyboard, we're gonna keep booting. We don't That's
we employ a keyboard and later this is an A grievous
This isn't worth it. This isn't worth hanging, especially
if you want to reboot when you're not there.
Oh, this is a very important one. The boot sequence. So here we saw. Okay, we have the sea Rahm drive, and we have the hard drive.
So the boot sequence says, Okay, which, which of these devices are gonna try to boot from in which order? Because the Bruno asked. We need either see Rahm or hard drive. So we'd beat off the sea Rahm to install no es
and bring us into the install screen, and we want to boot off the hard drive to boot into
in existing os.
Now the order is very important here. So
I say we have so this in this setup here, we say, uh, first boot devices floppy.
So we're looking the floppy drive back in the day. We had to use floppies
to install I Miss Dawson Windows 3.11
we look at the floppy drive, and if there's no, there's no disc in the floppy or if the distance in the flop is not bootable,
we're gonna go the next device and it's the hard drive.
Okay, so the hard drive has windows on it. Or Lennox, I'm gonna boot into windows and I'm done
What happens if I move? If I swap, See Rahm and Floppy
and the sea Rahm Drive has a Windows eight and solid disk on it.
So I boot up
my first boot device. See, Rahm what I do.
I'll boot into the windows, installing I won't ever get to my
hard drive already.
You know, I probably already have ah operating system,
so it's a good measure to protect your boot order and make sure that you have the right order there because
just because you left the Windows boot disk in your drive doesn't mean next to reboot.
You want to go into the install its
and it's also a way that a malicious user could get in because he could come bring in a seedy Ron with his own software on it,
and he'll need to know your password. You just needs to hit the part, but enforce your computer reboot, and if your boot or has zero on first, it's gonna boot off his CD Rob
and bypass your operating system and usually from a C rime you could get to the file system unless it's encrypted.
So it's a good idea to have it in, have your hard this first and then only change the order
when you know you're gonna need to for, like, booting off. The same thing could be said This is an older bios for the same thing could be said for us, be most. The newer devices come budoff, USB.
Ah, so the other options that we see in here beside the boot order is, um,
the hard drive's smart capability. That's that's a technology in
newer, hard drives that tryingto protect. If the drive's gonna fail, give you a warning that
the drive might fail. So you can get your dad off it
do you know enable that
Like I mentioned before, you have things like
being unable to neck, being disabled in the sound card
in the chipset settings.
These are enabling disabling specific functions of the CPU.
Very rare that you're gonna anyone's gonna ever need to change these. These are they provide the options. But like they say, they're advanced there under advanced chipset.
in all my experience, I've never had the changes unless it was some rare compatibility error
between two pieces of hardware.
Now the D RAM configuration is where you could if you need to change in some rare circumstance. Or maybe if you're a over clocker PC enthusiasts, you see where it says D RAM configuration. That's where you could go in and change the settings for your
change or confirmed the settings for you. The ram in your system.
Here's the integrate peripherals menu so we can see
um, hardware, land. Um, Thea's Ayla Kodak. That's your sound card.
We can say disabled able. The serial poor
enable for be allowed to boo off
a network card. That's what the land. But Rahm is
onboard hard word 30 94. That's FireWire. This one had onboard FireWire.
Are we going to allow U. S B two USB mouse USB keyboard?
Our part management menu?
We can set things to reduce par consumption a lot of times these same settings and is one of the few ones that crossover where you can set these settings in Windows or Lennox. A lot of times where you say
idol after so many seconds of an activity, you know, throttle down or put the computer and suspended or standby mode
after so many minutes of an activity and then shut off
after so many minutes of activity.
Those are the common kind of saying you'll see in the park management
another option. You can't see it right here. You see the A C back function that settings usually means
what happens when I've lost power. Do I stay off or that when Parker back, do I boot back up?
So, like, if you had a server or ah, desktop, this don't like I've got a computer at home that if I lose power, I want computer come back up, but I access remotely. I want to make sure that option was set for after, You know, when a C comes back in this case, he called a C back. It's called
other names and other bios is. But after a loss, a c. When the a C come back, I want to try to boot itself again. I mean, it may come across airs because it was shut off unintentionally, but in my case, I do. But that's why you would have that option is away. This a server that has a database and
okay, it might have gotten corrupted when it lost power. I don't want to come back on until I can come
do a check of the file system and all that, you know, boot into safe mode and check. Everything's OK before I bring it up. But I don't wanna lose data,
so it's it's unique to your situation, but that's what that function does.
You said your plug and play for the P P. C I slots.
just real briefly. So our peace. So we have a NIT display first, and it says PC I express, that's
That's our That's the current standard for video cards. So when it says in its system display. First, we're gonna say Okay, first try toe
use. Whatever graphics card is in
the express lot, that would usually be a dedicated. It will be a day K graphic card.
Now say you have one of the newer chips neural processors that have integrated graphics processing unit on it.
So I have I'm a gamer. I wanna have I don't want to use the graphics processor in the chip. I won't use my dedicated processor, so I'm gonna make sure this is PC I express first.
But maybe I wantto
save energy. Sometimes it's a laptop, so I'm gonna
I can change that setting and say OK, when I boot,
look at the GPU on the processor instead
of my dedicated one. So that's what the
and it display first means, which, which processor in the system is gonna be? The one I use is
the drive by graphics card.
Or maybe I just have them plugged into two different ports. I wantto have it going to a different display when I reboot,
um, are accused. Used to be a big deal. These were assigning,
requests to individual devices. So each device had to have its own IROC you address
that's now all manage automatically by the operating system in most bios is so this is not something you would usually have to change left. You had a large number of devices
and the other options are very uncommon for you. Haven't ever have to change usually safe defaults
if you're And if you're never sure the defaults
what they were, you wouldn't change too many settings. Every BIOS has some kind of button like here. F six failsafe defaults. You have six. It's gonna reset
all the settings on that page. The default settings of the motherboard,
which is usually the best for maximum keep compatibility.
You don't want change of setting unless your shore that you need to
and cause unintended consequences.
PC health. So here we're seeing. Okay,
here is the temperature of our system 41 degrees Celsius. Here is the system of our CPU,
uh, speed, their CPU fan's spinning, and then we can also have it generate alarm. So okay, so here we have disabled, but we can say okay, if the CPU fan ever falls below 1000 rpm,
it's not spinning fast enough to keep that seep. You cool. I want you to shut down or I want youto set an alarm.
Thes air usually tied into
software on the operating system that you could install that says
the motherboard will have some kind of software you install in your usually Windows. I'll say
read this data from the BIOS while you're running and
and pop up in alert or whatnot. But worst case you come check it if your system seems to running
And same for so, the power fan system fan now says System fan, one system fan to par fan. What does that mean? It really means Okay, we have multiple fans in the case.
Power Fan is gonna be whichever fan we plug into the slot on the motherboard label. Powerful fan. It doesn't know better. It's trusting you to plug the par fan into the power fans slot in Safer System fan. That would usually be a fan, that you'd probably on the front of the case for the back of the case, But
same for the values that a report here they is going wherever you plug in, so it's it's up to you to make sure you played those into the right slot.
Ah, few other common functions. So we've talked about setting passwords. We talked about marring. See few temperatures. Eso diagnostics when it boots it. Always perform a memory check to make sure all the memories account for, and it's not very thorough. But if it the Texas value different from the value it did last time booted
usually pop up a warning message saying,
Okay, a different value Does that mean you removed RAM or a stick failing?
Didn't get detected?
And so some mostly on proprietary cases. Our cases that you bought from someone, ah, premade system and supposed to be in your own Ah, lot of them will have what's called intrusion detection. So basically,
a cable that's plugged into there's some kind of sensor on the case that's plugged into the motherboard,
and then it can tell you and log and the BIOS. If someone tried to open the case, will trigger the sensor will send it into the BIOS.
You see that a lot more common in, um,
in corporate machines, maybe
enterprise large purchases. You'll see that because that's how you know if someone tried to get in and change settings,
we're trying to reset your settings or maybe took a hard drive out and put it back in to steal data mean? So that's where intrusion detection.
Um, we also have what's called a trusted platform module on a lot of the motherboards in the BIOS that because it's used for encrypting data right from boot,
So I'll start the crypt Africa creased, actually store the cryptographic keys on their there needs to be supporting the BIOS, and the operating system will take advantage of this to be able to do like true encryption from boot.
This will enable. This will stop someone from trying to do like a man the middle by booting off a USB key and trying to steal data in between. Could also be used for digital rights management network access control. So network accent troll. Is this machine allowed to join the network? You have to have the infrastructure in place to support that
s offer up. So we talked about ROM's. They're on the run that's on the motherboard, the system wrong, which actually holds the bios. Now
it controls. We talked about the system bios, looks at things like the hard drives
and other purple that sees the sound card.
So now we want to add another kind of hard drive that the BIOS in support or the original motherboard didn't support. So
we're worth it. Old motherboard. We wanna add the latest version of the hard drive technology Serial 88 what I Wanna Do Raid, which is striping using multiple disks for redundancy or to make a larger volume?
Well, my mother board doesn't support that, but that's something that the computer needs to know about before I get to the operating system.
So what will happen is a lot of these, uh, third party cards, like a serial a rate card
it will go into. The mother will plug into the motherboard through a typical slot, but it'll have its own bios
that will then kick in after the initial bio so you'll have the system bios, and then you'll see a pop up for
the BIOS. For this particular card, which will not be anywhere near is full features, basically just the subset of settings
they're required to
be configured on
for the raid before you get to the operating system step.
So instead of like,
you know, I I buy this raid card, I'm not gonna change my system. Bios from motherboard. It's additional bios that is looked afterwards,
and you'll usually and, you know, I could see the bio screen pop up.
You'll see the bios like, even if you're not going to balance on the first boat, you'll see the bio stuff go by saying,
You know, you're this kind of processor. Here's a ram check. Here's your hard drives and then I'll show you your
any other options. Optional roams like a serial 80 raid. Another come one is third party network cars might have
having optional Rahm
So we talked about. So the basics are gonna be taken care of in that, replied the motherboard and taking care of the BIOS. But
like we have our own sound card, that's not something that needs to be handled by the BIOS that's gonna be handled by
the, uh, that's gonna handle by the operating system. So those air used device drivers and now
device drivers were written specifically by the manufacturer
of the device and need to be installed in the operating system. So when you're looking at the vice drives, you gotta make sure that it's the right.
It's for the right version of operating system you having for the right model of the hardware device that you're using
and inside Windows. In the case of Windows, there's a program called the vice manager that you could get to through the control panel that let you see all your devices.