So we talked about all these different kinds of
si pues. Now let's talk a little bit about the sockets. So the socket
is where the CPU actually plugs into on the motherboard.
So on early computer, especially the first processors, which were 80 80 eights and 86 my first computer was in 88. They were, so they were salted onto the motherboard. You couldn't change them out. They were. It was just like you pull out a circuit board from your phone. You plow a circuit board from
a number of devices around your house. You'll see there's chips that you can't
take off. That's how early processes were.
Well, that's not very. We don't want to replace everything. Just go. You want to change the speed, especially with the competition that's been going on between indulge in Tony M. D. It was common that you might be out upgrade to a newer
CPU in the next couple of years, when the prices have gone down, you go to a faster speed
for, you know, 100 bucks,
and you have to replace the entire motherboard. You have to take everything out of the case again, so
they started creating these things called sockets.
They're always key to prevent improper insertion of the CPU. They're usually keep his little arrow in the corner.
You can see
on the slide here you see this little not chair that make sure the processor sits in the
and they'll have some kind of lover system
that will lock the CPU in place so it doesn't just fall out. And you make sure you have a solid connection between the pins and the
CPU. You can see the bit of lever there.
So then we have the actual pins, and we call these the grid array packages. There's two types of CPU socket mixes.
We have the PGA where the pins are part of the process, or so you have a processor with pin sticking out of it.
And then you have the land grid arrayed L J, which are
the reverse. So the pins air on the socket itself
the receiving parts on the CPU. So it's two different ways. So PJ is the pins on the processor, probably more traditional way you think of it,
and L. G A. Is reversed with pins are already on the motherboard.
So to show this,
we'll show you an example.
So now, to give you an example of the PGA and algae, a tie pin outs we see on this one, this one's this one's considered PGA, which means the pins are actually on the CPU.
So, as you can see, these are all little kind of holes on the actual socket,
and those are gonna match up with the pins that are actually on
the CPU itself.
Now that would be an example of PGA.
You can also see how that is
keyed at the corner here
with a corner with, uh, an angle and then also
on the actual slot. Here there's a Penn zer and angle,
so if you put this in, we drop it into the
Make sure the pins lineup
This one has two triangles,
and then we use the lever toe snap that into place,
so that would be a PGA.
Now P J has been more come with a M D.
And Intel has gone with algae, which is reverse
where the pins are
on the socket instead of on the CPU.
So in here you can see there's no Siri's of holes here like there was on the PJ.
are a series of many pins, and this is, Ah, pretty high end processor, so there's a significant number of more pins than we saw in the last example. But those are all pins right there, sticking out of the socket instead of holes like we saw in P. J
and then on this side or all the connectors on the CPU.
So the CPU there's no pen sticking out because the pins are on the other side.
But the connection works very similar. It's key to a certain direction.
It won't feel clay right and wrong.
This one's keyed by having little slots on the side.
But you drop that in
this plate, make sure that the weights distributed evenly and
it locks in place.
So, PJ, it's important. Remember that pins are part of the processor itself.
Well, think pins PGA and land bread array
landscape that motherboards the landscape.
That's where the pins are. Part of the socket
advantage to either one of just curious was just not one way or the other. Basically, it's it's
it's It's an engineering decision by the Intel IR MD
early and told chips
were PJ also
um, the first when I first. When I showed in just a minute ago the the older Intel or P g A. They had the pins on the actual processor, and then at some point they decided to go L. G A.
There's not specific advantage. It doesn't it. We're still. It's the same technology. We have a pin connecting to a male connector, you know, so that that pin is basically that pin in the sock is basically your connection to the E d. B or the external
ah, data bus.
we're just saying apples or oranges. Happy, too glad that we're gonna do it one way or the other.
It might be part of the competition between Andy and Intel to make sure,
um, we don't have incompatibilities or it might be a safety thing. So you don't try to put a
A M D chip into an Intel motherboard and then
complained that we didn't work because the lovers are pretty strong in those things. If you want to make it go into a socket, you could make it go in. It probably wouldn't work anymore, but
if for talking
to matching puzzle, you know two mismatched puzzle pieces that's gonna that's one easy way right away to tell,
um, the difference.
So Intel has been sticking with the L. G. A. I am de has been sticking with the PGA
now in using their names for the socket. So each of these sockets have a name, so we know
it's not very great. It's never easy remember naming scheme,
but for the intel sockets, they use algae A as part of the socket name.
So you know,
that's the pin type. So we're gonna have the pins on the sock itself instead of on the CPU.
you notice that the list of sockets or not in the order are not in numerical order. They're in the order that they were released in the order of
generation. So the one that was around for the longest with algae a 775 that was your penny and fours Celeron Court two's eons,
before the core IE seven's came along in the Corps I five lines. So that was an L J 775 socket.
So then they came out the first Corps I seven and that was L. G A. 13 66.
I don't know why they chose 13 66. They would hire them numbers
that they're going to use next.
So then they went thio 11 56
for their pre sandy bridge chipsets. Pre Sandy. When we talk to Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge, those air named of the chips that's the chipsets, determine capabilities of the motherboard.
Uh, how many ports you would have on the motherboard? It does. The non CP work of coordinating the activities on the motherboard
in certain chipsets also only support certain processors.
So then we had 11 56
which was the priest and a bridge, and then the current one.
Right now, the most popular. What is Allergy 11 55
which is both Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge ship sets. And they're the core. I 35 by seven
Bigger road map when we go the AMG sockets,
it's kind of interesting. You see an intel. They used L. G A. And that's your socket type. And then they came up with another number.
So am D. It's the opposite. They have their pin numbers in there.
Names. There So you have, you know, the 9 40 which is 940 pins that was out. That was one of their longer running ones.
They went to a M to which was still 940 pins
They went toe and two plus, which was still 940 pins and what was happening here. Woz.
They're adding capabilities so you could have a newer CPU that supported newer kinds of RAM and newer technologies
without a lot of time. You could add those functionalities by upgrading the BIOS on the motherboard, which would add these new features. Or you can add new chips and still have some kind of backward compatibility.
That's why they kept the same pins.
Now you see the names that we we've already mentioned earlier, like the ATF on 64 Athlon 64 x two. Now they were all identical for each one of these socket types, the sea if you had to support the new features to take advantage of it.
But you could have, like, say,
a name to plus socket like a mother, where the head and two plus. But you can't afford one of those new
AM to plus capable chips, you could get one of the older AM two chips. You just want to use the advanced
kind of like using an older version of plugging USB three. Drive into a USB too, so
you must be three's faster. But USB two is a slow report, so we will go at the speed of the slow report. Does that work?
Then we went to and 3 a.m. three, which wasn't here. 41 pin. So
you see, they keep adding pins and the pins so that you have more.
You can send more instructions back and forth to the chip over the E t be external data bus.
Then we have the FM one, which was not over five pins. You see, we keep kind of changing our pin numbers. These had integrated GP use, uh, integrated graphic processing units, which is a up and coming technology that we're seeing and also in the eye Sevens on I five. They're having integrated graphic processing units.
We'll talk about that in another slice
and then our server level. They have a radically different kind of socket type for Opteron, which I already mentioned her.
The server processors,
they're a 12 with seven pins.
All right, So
when talking about processors for longest time, we were at 32 bit processing,
and that means they ran 32 bit operating systems.
Um, 64 bit operating systems would not run on a 32 bit cable processor
when we talk, about 32 bit were were often also saying x 86 hear that term a lot x 86. That's instruction set
problem with 32 bit processing with the amount of RAM it could address.
So the more ram you have, the more information you can store and,
um, you can store on access faster, and RAM is significantly faster, the hard drive. So especially really talking with servers as and as computers move on. We're always these computers, always using more and more ram toe work, and four gigabyte was starting become a hard limit.
X 6 64 bit allows us
to breach the four gigabit limit when we're talking about how much ram we can use in a system.
So the larger address space of 64 bit architecture mix work with florid data sets and applications
specifically scientific computing and large databases Easier. We could take advantage of all that RAM so we can weaken. If we put enough RAM in there, we can load almost entire database in Aram. And it's not running off the hard drive, which is gonna have significant improvements in performance.
We're talking about database, especially in a Web application.
The'keeper's years. It has to be a 64 bit operating system on a 64 bit processor. Now much now we can do backwards compatibility, so
if you have a 64 bit processor, you can run a 32 bit os.
But like I mentioned last night, you can't do the opposite. You can't run a 64 bit
OS on a 32 bit processor,
and then if it's 64 bit and you're running 64 bit O. S, you can achieve the full potential of using more Memory.
Sees four bits, also commonly referred to as X 64 so
x 86 because I was the original instruction set instead of X 32. But then we commonly referred to 64 bit as X 64
backwards compatibility with 32 operations so you can run. So even though you have a 64 bit operating system, some programs still may not be
64 bit capable, but they will run to. You
may have a Web browser that's only 32 bit.
It will still run in an X 64 environment, but that one process that one, that 1 32 bit processor is not gonna be able to use up or process that one next 32.
That 132 bit process is not gonna be able to use up more than four gigabytes of RAM because it's not 64 been able, but the OS can and the OS functions in a program that air
written to make use of 64 bit.
A program written for 64 bit will not run
in a 32 bit environment also,
but now it's 64 bit has become more prevalent.
Most processors and most operating systems on new systems are all 64 bit,
we're starting to see program for him to take advantage of
64 bit processing
and then some of them. Some of the more high end server software specifically, in this case, 2008 released, too.
Require 64 bit to run. It says, If you're not fairy, if you know any 64 bit processor,
you can't run this. This version we're not. We're not creating a 32 bit version of this OS anymore,
and they're eventually going that way with the Windows eights, and
they're eventually gonna phase out 32 bit versions, and
it would be a non issue eventually. But
you also see it was, um,
the last two versions of Microsoft exchange their mail server software. They are also only available in 64 bit, not 32 bit.
So exchange 2013
So if you want to run no soft, we had to have 64 bit processor. And then you also have to make sure you were running no, no less. That was 64 bit