Network Cables and Connectors Part 2

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Time
12 hours 9 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
12
Video Transcription
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>> This is lesson 7.1
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network cables and connectors, Part 2.
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We're going to continue our discussion speaking
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on the Ethernet protocol and Ethernet standards.
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We're going to also look at connections and
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cables using the Ethernet standard.
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In this lesson, we're going
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to go over and discuss fiber optic cabling,
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coaxial cabling and specifically we're going to drill
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down to the RG6 and the RG59,
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which is used on coaxial cabling
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and we're going to finish off talking about
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the DB9 or the RS-232 serial
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>> connectors and connections.
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>> You've probably heard a lot about
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fiber optic cabling over the years.
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Fiber optic cabling is the way to
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transmit huge amounts of bandwidth over long distances,
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and it's even used in networks.
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We're going to talk about
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two different modes of fiber optic cabling.
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Now, a fiber optic cabling transmit Ethernet frames in
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a very different way than twisted copper cabling.
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Fiber optic cabling uses light instead of electricity,
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fiber optic cable is immune to
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electricity problems such as
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>> lightening, short-circuits,
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>> and statics, and the EMI
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connection issues that we found
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out in the previous lesson.
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Fiber optic signals travel much farther also
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than twisted copper pair 2,000 meters or more,
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compare with 100 meters on UTP.
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Fiber optic is an ideal cabling in a situation where
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you may have long distances within
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a building or within a business, a corporation.
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It's ideal when you're connecting
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buildings together over long distances.
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Fiber optic cabling again,
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uses light and we're going to dig in
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and see what type of light in a few more slides.
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But again, fiber optic cabling carries a huge amount of
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bandwidth in long distances and short distances.
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With fiber optics, light can be sent down
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a fiber optic cable as regular light or a laser light.
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There's two different lights that fiber
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optic cabling uses,
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a regular light like an LED or a laser.
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Each type of light requires
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a totally different fiber optic cables.
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Most network technologies, they use
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fiber optics to use light emitting diodes,
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or LEDs to send light signals.
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These use multimode fiber optic cabling.
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Now, multi-mode fiber transmit multiple signals at
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the same time using
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a different reflection angle
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within the core of the cable,
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the multiple reflection angles
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tend to disperse over long distances.
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That's why you can't use
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multi-mode fiber over very long distances.
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You would use what's called a single mode.
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Let's talk about single mode cable.
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Fiber optic cabling that uses
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laser light uses a single mode fiber optic cabling.
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Using a laser light in
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single-mode fiber-optic cables allows for
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high transfer rates over long distances.
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Now, except for long distance links,
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you're not really going to see single-mode cabling.
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The majority of the cabling used nowadays
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in LANs and land is going to be multi-mode.
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But for those long distances,
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it would be single-mode fiber optic cabling.
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Let's look at the single-mode versus the multi-mode.
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You'll see the image on the left.
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The single-mode fiber has
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just a single fiber optic cable
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and that laser light passes right through there.
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Whereas multi-mode, like we talked about before,
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it's going to send two different signals at
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the same time and it reflects a different angle,
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bouncing through that cable.
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On the right, you'll see
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the single mode right there in
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the middle and that's how that looks
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on the outside and the multi-mode on
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the far right, multi-mode cable.
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Now, there are close to
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100 different Ethernet fiber optic cabling standards.
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1000BaseSX and 10GBaseSR are just a couple.
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But again, there's about 100 different standards.
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Now, each of these standards,
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their difference in speed
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of the network and how they connect.
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Fiber optic cabling will need to connect to
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a fiber optic switch or a fiber optic network cards.
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On the far left, this is a fiber optic switch.
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You would generally see these in datacenters and in
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large networks where fiber optic cabling
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is ran throughout and it needs to connect to a switch,
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just like you would do CAT5e or CAT6.
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In the middle is a fiber optic NIC card.
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There's some organizations, some businesses,
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you yourself may even have
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a fiber optic NIC card into a computer.
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You can run fiber optic directly to the computer.
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There's a lot of businesses that are doing
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this because of the need for more throughput,
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more and faster Internet
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speeds or connection speeds on the network.
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Whether a passing large data files,
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large video or audio files,
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fiber optic can be brought right to the system or
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the PC using a fiber optic NIC card.
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On the far right, we have a network switch.
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This is a net regular
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10/100/10000 gigabit network switch.
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But as you've probably seen yourself over the years,
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where they're starting to come out with
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the fiber connectors right into the switch.
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I would generally use these
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in a network when I'm bringing in
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a fiber backbone into the network.
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I will plug my fiber connectors right into the switch,
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then patch my difference network equipment
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through to switch to wherever they need to go.
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Whether it's a printer, whether it's going to
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be a PCs or whatever.
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You can backbone your fiber optic connection
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right to the switch.
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Fiber networks follow the speed
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and distance limitations of their networking standard.
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Multi-mode is slower and it
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has a shorter range than the single mode.
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A typical multi-mode network runs,
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10, 100 or 1,000 megabits per second.
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Some can go as high as 10,000 megabits a second.
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Distances for multi-mode generally
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runs in a top out about 600 meters.
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Single-mode, on other hand,
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speed and distance depending on the standard,
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is faster and longer than multi-mode.
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The top recorded transmission speed was in 2011,
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and that was a 100 terabits per second,
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and that distance was over 100 miles.
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Let's talk about coaxial cabling.
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Now, early versions of Ethernet ran
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over coaxial cable instead of UTP.
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Ethernet standards using coaxial
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no longer use and nowadays,
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coax is traditionally or mainly used
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for cable modems and satellite connections.
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Coax is constructed with
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a center cable core surrounded by installation.
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This is covered with a shield of braided cable.
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Now the center core actually carries the signal,
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and that's that copper core right there.
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The entire cable is then surrounded by
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a protective insulating cover.
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On the far right, you'll see
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just a cutaway of a coaxial cable.
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In the center is that solid copper core,
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followed by the installation for
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the core and at braiding that was just mentioned.
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The outside is the outside protector covering or
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the shield order the cover for it.
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Now coaxial cables are rated using an RG name.
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There are many RG ratings that are out there.
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But for the CompTIA A plus,
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you only need to know the RG-59 and RG-6.
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Both the RG-6 and RG-59 have a 75 ohm impedance.
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RG-59 is thinner and doesn't
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carry as much data as the RG-6.
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The RG rating is clearly marked on the cable,
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just like in CAT5,
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you'll see that the RG markings are there.
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Now, one way to know or
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tell the difference between our RG-6 and
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RG-59 is RG-59 is a little thinner than the RG-6.
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RG-6 is a bigger cable and
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let's jump into that a little bit more in detail.
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[NOISE] Here you'll see RG-59
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>> on the left and the RG-59,
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>> the center core is thinner than the RG-6,
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has a thinner installation and it's lesser shielding.
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Whereas on the RG-6,
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they have a thicker core for
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better signal transmission and
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a thicker insulation and a better shielding as well.
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Let's look at the coaxial cabling connectors.
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We have the F-type connector male,
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which you've probably seen in your cable installations.
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Then there's the F-type connector female,
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and you can see these as in a connector
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or an adapter or a coupler.
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On the far right,
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you'll see a BNC connector and BNC connector
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has a half twist turn to
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connect that to a female connector.
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DB-9 and serial ports.
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Older equipment used an earlier type
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of connection called a serial connection,
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which used the recommended standard
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232, which is RS-232.
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Now the serial port was a 9-pin,
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D-shell male socket called in DB-9 or an RS-232.
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Now there's not a lot of equipment out there in
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the market that uses this right now,
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the RS-232 or DB-9 connection.
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But you'll still come across it as
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a technician working in the field.
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Images below on the left you'll see what
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a RS-232 or DB-9 or serial cable,
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it's called multiple things, how it looks.
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Now, give you a tip right there in the middle.
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That is an RS-232 to USB cable.
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That's a good thing to have if you're
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on a field because you may come
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across some of these older equipment
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and some of the newer laptops,
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of course, don't have the serial or
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the 9-pin connector and this is a good way to connect
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an equipment right there using the USB interface.
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I make sure I keep these in my bag at all times.
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Again, sometimes you'll come across equipment
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in your call to troubleshoot or connect
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to equipment and configure it or what
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have you and you'll see around the back of
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that equipment right there on the right,
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there is a serial port
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that you would use your serial cable to connect to.
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Again, when you connect to that cable,
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it would be mostly serial
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or command line interface
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that you do your configuration with.
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We have finished up
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our networking cabling and connectors.
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We talked about the fiber
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>> optic cabling, coaxial cabling,
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>> RG-6 and RG-59 and the D-9 and
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>> RS-232 serial connectors.
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>> That's it for this lesson and we
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will see you in the next lesson.
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