Network Cables and Connectors Part 1

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12 hours 9 minutes
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this is less than seven, not one network cables and connectors, part one, Ethernet cables and connectors.
In this lesson, we're gonna talk about Ethernet. We're going to talk about every phase of Ethernet cables and connectors and everything that's comprised of the Ethernet standard
that's going to begin.
When we think of Ethernet, we think of cabling, patch courts, the patch cords that we seem to connect computers to a switch or other network devices.
Actually, either let is much more than that. So to give you a background of beginning either nets, the concept started back in the mid seventies. Companies came together and came away with a standard.
How to connect devices in a network and past data from one host to another host. And that's where Ethan it was born out off. So either that is not just a cable. It's to stand arrest of protocol behind the ether that
even his drum is the traditional technology for connecting wire. Local networks are lands, Metropolitan area networks are millions and wide area networks, which are wins. Ethernet, is a protocol of families that fall under the IEEE 802.3 standard
developed in the early eighties F Ethernet is a communication protocol that insurers reliability through its systematic delivery of frames and packets of data.
Ethernet touches to parts of the S, a horse I model, which we're going to talk about later. The physical in the Daniel eight layers. So again, Ethan, that is not just a cable. It's not just the Kanebo connect one computer to another computer or to a switch. It is the family of protocols behind it. It's the connection standard, and what makes that up
And Ethernet actually is comprised of
various different cable types, which we're gonna talk about in this lesson.
So Ethan, it originally started believing not using co axial cable as its connection medium. There was in the earlier 10 based E networks, there was a co ax cable use that deliver either net.
It's widely used in modern wired networks. On nowadays, most common connection speeds are 10 based T 100 base T in 1000 based T, which are tin tin, 100
10 101,000 are gigabit,
and these are all collectively known as either net.
Most common connection. Medium used today is the copper twisted pair they were going to spend a lot of time talking about that.
Since his generation has went through various upgrades and changes, which you will see no matter what came on, different cabling or devices are used. Network host will still be able to communicate over Ethernet. So what that means is, if you had an Internet of AH network and prying of copper, twisted pair cabling as well as fiber optic
armas well, as the old tin based T
Theoretically, because they're all Ethernet, they'll be able to talk to one another. So that's going to continue.
First, we're gonna talk about a kn showed it. Twisted pair. This is the Ethernet cabling that you're traditionally used to seeing, and its its proper name is unshielded twisted pair you tp. It's the cabling that specify cabling for the 10 101,000 Base T
is the most common cabling used today.
Twisted pair cabling consist of gauge of 20 to 26 gauge wire, twisted together in color coded pairs. Each wire is individually insulated and encased as a group in a common jacket. We're gonna talk about that a little bit more so unsure that twisted pair that is the proper name for your Ethernet cable ing the copper,
cabling or copper twisted pair.
Then there is the shield. It twisted pair. And what do you think? The difference between the UN *** and showed it? That's correct. A shield showed it. Twisted pair cause this stuff twisted payers of wire surrounded by the shooting to protect them from E. M I, which is electromagnetic interference.
STP is using location with excessive
electronic noise, such as a shop area floor where there's a lot of lights. Electric motors are other machinery that could cause problems for other cables. So showed it twisted pair or STP is used in again in those harsh environments. Where am I is going to be a factor that shooting actually in that jacket
provides a blocking or shoot for that
so it won't damage the transmission. So if you're gonna, if you're in a situation where there is a lot of electro Matic interferes in electric noise and so forth and you don't use showed a pair, what's gonna happen is your signal is gonna be degraded. Um,
case in point. I remember way back in earlier days of installing cable in the company I used to work with cables was ran by another contractor over fluorescent lights or close to fluorescent lights. And this caused the problem of Am I? The am I from those fluorescent lights was causing a problem.
And when we did a wire test that what signal was really, really degraded and when it is degraded was gonna cause us.
Ah, bad connection.
So therefore, you don't have your printer's not correcting connecting right. Your computer's not talking with another correctly, so those cables have to be rerouted, or we could have used the shooted. But that's the problems that you have. If you're using unsure repair in the environment where it needs to be, shoot it.
Planum versus non Plato cabling is generally installed in Iran in spaces where electric oh, and other cabling is located like ceilings, walls under the floors, things like that. That space is cop the planet. That's the plan. Um, space now common. Ethan at copper cabling is manufactured. What a PVC,
which is polyvinyl chloride jacket material. It's like a PVC plastic
ah jacket that you can see in this image here.
Now, when that jacket gets hot, or when it's burns, it releases a lot of noxious fumes. Also, say, Fritz, if there was a fire and if that wire just got hot, the fumes that's released from that could be very toxic. Now he and remember, cabling is installing the wire under floors
under the floors and the walls above the ceilings.
And if that space heats up, is gonna create a lot of toxic fumes, which could get a lot of people sick. Do a lot of damage to people. So that's where Planum cable comes in play.
Because of this, commercial applications will require the use of an even it cabling that is fire retarded. This cable is called playtime grade cable, putting great cable costs more than a non plenty. However, it is required to some applications again, going back into my earlier days and years of installing cable hospital perfect scenario
where when respect out a job and installed the cabling in for that hospital, all the wiring were it was required to have planum cable.
So now we're diving in deep because we're gonna talk about the types of the copper cabling, specifically cat five, cat E five e and cat six. And that's where a lot of you may be very familiar with those terms.
U T P cabling is rating in categories pretending to the speed that could be carried through them or the band. With that they can handle
generally and either it networks. There's also a limit on distance limitation of 100 meters or 328 feet.
Cat six and higher rated cables have additional factor, which will see below. So let's talk about those distances individually.
So let's talk about the cable's ratings individually. First, starting with Cat five. Cat five when it first came out, has rated for 100 megabit networks of the distance limitations. This is 100 meters or 328 feet
Now we made some improvements since cat Fine. We came out with Cat five E. And this is the standard of all cable companies running cabling in the for jobs and building locations and so forth.
Cat five actually is rated for 1000 megabit networks or gigabit networks. Can gigabit networks can travel over cat five e the distance limitations 100 meters, which is still the same or 328 feet
other enhancements between Cat five E versus Cat five. These there has been some enhancements with the shooting of a cross talk that will degrade your signal, cross talk and interference. So those enhancements were made to the Cat five e as well as the speed rating
to make it Maurin improved from cat five.
Then we came with CAT five cats. Six cats six is rated 400 megabits networks with a distance limit of 100 meters or 3 to 20 feet. However, cat Sixes also rated for 10 gigabit networks with the distance limit up to 55 meters or 180 feet.
So if you had situations where you had 10 gigs of data that needed to be ran over wiring, you could use cats. Six.
However, your distance limitation is only 180 feet,
and generally the category rating for all cables is clearly marked on the cable, as you'll see in the images below. On the left, we have a cat six cable, right? We have a cat five cable. So even though your purchasing that cable you can see right on the cable, as far as the ratings for that cable
Now let's move into connectors. Now we're gonna first start talking about two different connectors for Ethernet networks. Currently there two types of R J connectors use for networking, R J 11 and RG 45
first rd. 45 r G 45 is the standard, really for connecting Cat for Cat five. Cable ng R J R J 45 Jack is permitted for copper Ethernet network connections are J stands for Register, Jack Back, Way, Back, Way in and Bell systems. When they were developed in these jacks,
the R J stands for Registered Jack in the number 45 really refers to the number of the interface standard.
Um, Arjun, 45 is the standard used for you. TP and STP connections are J 45 has four pairs of wires, which we've seen on the cabling as well.
R J 11. Now those of you familiar with their cabling standards and so forth and having experience installing cable r J 11. Why RG 11? That's a phone jack. But really, it's it's for networking equipment or passing data as well. The R J 11 Jack
connects your telephone equipment to telephone jacks. It supports up to two pairs of wires.
The other players used to support a second phone line. Our data data can be transfered over a R J 11. So you see on the image right there has four peons. So when one pair could be used for your phone line, the second pair for the other phone line
Now, as well as our ji 11 can be used for passing data.
For example, your D S L from the outlet to the D s. A modem is in RG 11 past his data.
Now let's talk about, I would say, someone of a controversial topic 5 68 A in 5 68 D where you may have heard the tame the terms, a wiring and be wiring. What's the difference?
The Telecom Communication Industry Association T I. A. Governs the U T peace categories and they fall under the A in S I
or the anti T I A applications 5 68 specifications. Rather,
the American National Standards Institute and seek accredits t i et standards. So they assured things work across the industry and equally important, along with international standards and cease last t I a has to standards for connecting R J 45 Connectors to the E T. P Cables.
T. 5 68 R T. 55 68 A and t 5 68 b.
These are two standards for connecting cabling or how the wire pairs are supposed to match, so let's look at the wiring standard in a little bit more detail.
So in this slide you'll see on the far left you have the two wiring diagrams of the two wire ling standards, the 5 68 a in the 5 68 B.
Now the 5 68 a. Let's look at the color coding on that one that's white, green,
white, orange, blue, white, blue, orange, white, brown, brown. And that's 5 68 a now 5 68 b is white, orange, orange, white, green, blue, white, blue, green and white brown. As you can see, the difference between these two is really
the orange in the green pair of wires.
Now the question is in. The question on the debate has been for a long time, which is better. Which one is better? 5 68 a 5 68 b.
Which one is faster? Does one have Maur or a better performance than the other.
The answer to as far as the performance? No, they're both the same. This is a different rating, or a different standard between the A and B, but they don't
enhance the performance at all. It's just a different wiring standard. The 5 68 B is more of the 18 t quote Traditional wiring. That's what it's been said in the field, where as the 5 68 a If you are a contractor and you're doing work for the government,
they require 5 68 8 wiring.
So these air to standards as faras in the wiring on the pit on wiring for data networks for Ethernet, the 5 65 68 a. M. To 5 68 b. And it's just different color coding. The most important thing with this is is that you need to make sure that your ends match
well. You can't have one units of 5 68 a and the five other in is a 5 68 B that's not going to work. They need to match on both sides now as far as a standard. And what's the important factor of a standard is Let me give you an example.
Years back at a company that worked with And that was back when I was installing cable. We came into a building or business rather and looked at their wiring. Now the wiring was working and they had some other issues that were there to resolve.
But there was no standard whatsoever. It was just straight through cabling. All the pairs were met, mixed up and match according to a not following a standard,
but they're mashing on it at the end. So theoretically, yeah, I was passing data. So you're The question may come to mind is so why follow a standard? One of the reasons you want to follow a standard is
if someone is working with you behind you or another organization. You want to make sure that you're following a correct standard, so your work is easy to follow. What you have done is quote textbook. According to either the five succeed a or the 5 68 be wiring standards.
Now I have a couple other images I'm gonna draw your attention to.
So let's look at the top image and what this is is a data. Jack R. J. 45 Data Jack to be exact, and you'll see the inside of the jack. There's a wiring that says a B 1254 and on the other side, there's other numbers as far as the for the other numbers of the PM This is a data jack that you would put it into a warm plate.
And, as you can see, it has
wiring or instructions or data diagram for a N B. Wiring.
A lot of devices in the network in the field that you get from a variety of vendors will still have the A end to be wiring because again, you're perfect. Maybe a your profits. Maybe be so. Vendors have their product's marked with both of those wire ings, and below you'll see
a little section of a patch panel. This is the behind a patch panel where you punched on your wiring.
Same thing. It has both standards, labeling there a diagram for both 5 68 A and 5 68 B.
So as faras performance, there is no performance difference between the 5 68 A and 5 68 B. Thomas fires a standard they both our standards. So you just have to make sure that you follow one of those standards even 5 68 a or the 5 68 B in my history and working with wiring and making wired connections,
I'm more familiar with the 5 68 be. That's the way I was trained. And that's what I don't over throughout the years.
Is it better than a No, that's just the standard, and I use on you'll find a lot of other technicians on the field also have made the same maybe the same thing. They may be a 5 68 8 So you just want to make sure that when you're
doing your installs, when you're punching down your jacks and you're doing your wiring, that you're following a standard number one
and that standard has followed through on all of your cables.
Okay, so let's discuss what we've covered. We've covered Ethernet in a big way. We've jumped majorly into Ethernet and discuss the copper cabling of Ethernet unsuited, twisted pair versus shoot. It was repair planting versus non problem. We discussed Cat five, Cat five. Ian Cat six.
We talked about the R J 45 R J 11 and looked at those jacks, and we finished off talking about eight wondering versus be wiring
the standards of 5 68 a. M. 5 68 b. So that is it for this lesson in part, to we're gonna go further into Ethan.
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