Hi and welcome to the county A A plus 2 to +0-1001 module to this lesson is lesson 2.3. The motherboard expansion slots. We're gonna talk about expansion slots, the expansion bus, P C I P C I E and riser cards. I'm your instructor, Bill Price.
So let's go ahead and get started.
Okay? For a lesson. Objectives. Let's talk about first the expansion slots. What? Our expansion slots. Then we're gonna talk about the PC I slots. Then we're going to talk a little bit about the expansion bus communication on the board. The board
followed by the PC. I car the P C i e p c I express card and we're gonna finish off. We'll talk about riser cards. So it's quite and jumped and dive right in.
Okay, what are expansion slots? A lot times our mother board in our computers. Rather, we want additional functionality. We want to change out the video card video car, maybe a
ah video card that's built right into the motherboard. But we want to get a higher performing video card, so we'd have to add that to a PC. I slot or P C I
East lot, so we'd add that function ability or, if we wanted to do some work with sounds, are any type of audio work, we'd have to get a higher performing audio card so we would at that card into one of our available PC I slots. So those slots that I'm speaking of our expansion slots
and we can expand the capabilities, our system
or a motherboard to include other devices that we may not may not come off the shelf. Rather, there's various different cards. I just mentioned a couple video audio. There's also captured cars for video streaming,
one of many again different cards that acts additional function functionality to your system.
So expansion slots, What are they again? They give us more functionality for additional devices. Now these devices will communicate across the motherboard and communicate through the expansion bus to send communication to from the car door to the memory or to the processor.
Now the expansion bus. That path that the communication for the device to where it's going expansion bus gets its own clock speed. It can either be in one mega of the Megahertz, which is one million cycles per second, while gigahertz, one billion cycles per second
and the P. C I and the older cars they communicate on what's called a parallel communication.
We're gonna talk about that little bit further
so alternatively, um,
known as a bus slot or expansion port. An expansion slot is a connection or port, located inside a computer on the motherboard or rise a card. It provides an installation point for hardware expansion car to be connected to.
So let's talk about the PC I expansion slot now. The PC I expansion sloughed or a peripheral component interconnect PC I. That's where that comes from, was creating in 1994. It was the most Wylie used expansion interface, and it came into It came in a 32 bit or 60 forbid bus with,
and they communicate in bus whiffs
and again, Like I said before, it was a parallel communication, and these parallel communications communicating was caught paths. So I 32 bit communication path had 32 bit quote lanes of John traffic or communication going from that slot to the device or other places on the motherboard
at 64 Bid had 64 lanes or paths to communicate.
Now, when we talk about the P. C. I. The PC at cars and peace, I slice. They went through different revisions, and the throughput varied on the version that we that were where there was out at the time.
Now the earliest version was 133 megabits. It was a 32 bit at 33 megahertz. Then we came out with the 266 megabits. Now that was a 32 big card and communicated at the 66 megahertz or 64 bits at 33 megahertz.
So you can see it operated either at their 66 megahertz ordered 33 megahertz,
and when it operates, operated at the 64 bit 33 megahertz, you'll see that the megahertz were pretty much cut in half.
And finally we have the 533 megabits, and that was that. A 64 big card at 66 megahertz.
Now let's talk a little bit more about the expansion bus, um, the expansion. But like I said, it was a 32 bit expansion slot, so it was like 32 different paths that it communicated with and from the expansion slots to the South Bridge or the Io controller hub, and so he could see the paths here on this
on this diagram just kind of give you an indication
of a 32 bit path with
now. Looking at the 60 forbid you to see the 64 bit was wider or pretty much double the size because it had Maur passed to communicate 64 lanes or 64 past to communicate.
Now there were two pick particular cars. They got its power from those slots, and we're kind of kind of talk about in detail how that power was derived.
Now. Power for the PCR card comes from the PC I slot. The car would either be or either require 3.3 votes or five votes again, depending on the card in the need or the functionality of that car,
you could determine the voter's by looking at the car notches or slots. So let's look at that a little bit more detail.
Now you can see on the left. Inside we are looking at. The first card is a 3.3 vote, 32 bit PC I car, and you could see that this nacho the first slot is right at the beginning,
and if we drop down, we look at a five vote of 32 bit PC I car. The notch is on the far writing in. Instead of the closer Farrell left Ian,
we got a little bit further still in the right column, the Universal 3.3 vote and five point skinny five vote 32 bit PC Ike are, you says to two notches or two slots. So it supported both of those votes. Itches
Now who look over at the 64 bit column. The first card is a 3.3 vote, 64 bit PC I car,
and the next one is a five votes, 64 bit car,
followed by a universal 3.3 vote. And if I vote 64 big card and again, you can see that 2 64 64 bit cards were a little bit bigger and down below those diagrams, you have some diagram to show you have the top. How the slots would look starting at the bottom
on the left is a 3.3 32 bit
followed by the five vote, 32 bit piece I slot card, and you could see that the grooves are slots are in your different spots, like we learned it from before.
The 3.3 vote was on the left, and the five votes work, too right?
And the same thing for the 64 bid card.
And that's how you can tell by looking at the card, the voted of that card or the votes a job, that slot
moving on to the PC III or the P C i e. P c I express
now it replaced the PC I, the PC I X and the H E B
Accelerated graphics. Port cards
These cards get communicated. Cyril E Ah Unit directional serial lanes. It was bi directional or a multi pass. It's spoken both paths simultaneously.
Now these cards came in a 1248 16 or 32 full duplex lane. Again, full duplex mean both ways communication, communicate and both ways simultaneously, and they were noted as a. The C Ram is like diagram. It says x one, but it was called by
by two by four by eight by 16 or by 32. And when you're looking at your cars or you wanted to purchase the cars and that's the ratings that you would go to know, Ex functionality would speed capability.
Now, in the larger PC I'II express cards, you'll notice a look, a little hook or notch toward the beginning of it. And under motherboard, that car would slide into that hook and fastened down right into that slot and the hook. Help it stay in place
now the P C E Express cards again. They were food duplex, so they communicated in both directions simultaneously. And that's how the serial connections worked.
Now there were different versions of the PC. I expressed device or express card per lane through put in each direction. Version one was 250 mega megabits per second.
Version, too, was 500 megabits per second.
Version three was one gigabyte version 42 gigabytes. Inversion five was four gigabytes.
So let's talk about rise the cards before we talk about rising cards. Let's look about the server functionalities in the form factors of servers.
As data centers became more prevalent, so did the shape in the size of our service changed.
Our servers were more horizontal our rack mounted servers instead of a desktop tower that we re used to in the earlier computing days. These rack mounted service fits in fitted and rex that were lined with servers for different functionality in computing power.
Now, because of this, it would be very impractical to put a regular standard PC I e. Or a P C. I card into one of these because they wouldn't fit.
You had plugged into the slot and you wouldn't be able to get the top. Now. They were. They were. It was impractical. So that's where the riser car come into play. Now what the riser car does, it fits into the slot, and also, it puts it in a way where you can add additional cards horizontally.
So rising Card is aboard that plugs into the system board and provides additional slots
for adapted card. Because it rises over the system board, it enables you to connect additional adapters to the system in the orientation that is parallel to the system board and save space within a case.
So that's where you would use a riser car for that additional functionality
Okay, so let's have a quick review of what we've talked about today.
We talked about expansion slots and got a good understanding and definition of one expansion slot is and what it does.
We talked about the PC I slots, and then we moved on and talked about the expansion bus communication across the motherboard.
Then we talked about the PC I card. We talked about the P C I E express card, and finally we talked about the riser card.
So that is it for this lesson. We will see you in the next lesson.