2.2 History of Quality and Continuous Improvement

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9 hours 3 minutes
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Hi, guys. Welcome to introduction to Lean six Sigma History of quality and continuous improvement. I'm Catherine MacGyver and today we're going to be going over the historical background for lean six Sigma and an awareness of the disciplines origins.
I will give you the caveat right now that this is by no means
a comprehensive or exhaustive list of all of the people who contributed to the disciplines, these air just going to be major influencers.
All right. So as we look at the timeline for the development of lean six Sigma, it is important to note that we really started in 17 93. However, there the activity started
to gain momentum around the time frame of the Industrial Revolution or the early 19 hundreds.
That being said Lean and Six Sigma as we understand it today was really developed post World War Two during the Japanese recovery. So if you look at our milestones, continue to build momentum until the end of the eighties with the Motorola Six Sigma Initiative and the machine that changed the world,
there are still
innovations and contributions being made to the discipline. However, the foundation really was developed post World War two to the end of the eighties.
All right, getting started on our major influencers, Eli Whitney. The reason why we care about him and 17 93 was he pioneered the idea of interchangeable parts, so having the same machines used the same parts. If something were to happen, you conferred a different part in and continue on your merry way.
Another major early indicator for Lean six Sigma was Frederick Taylor. He's considered the father of scientific management, and what that means is applying the scientific method to management organizations leadership.
He was considered the first efficiency expert, and where we see his fingerprints very strongly
and lean. Six Sigma isn't the first employee time and motion studies. So what's the work that we d'oh and how to week? How long does it take for us to complete it?
The next major key player in Lean Six Sigma and somebody who's still relied on very heavily was Henry Ford and the Model T. Henry Ford developed the assembly line technique mass production techniques
and really gave us the basis for what a processes as we understand it today, he relied on Whitney's developments for interchangeable parts.
So when we talk about. How do you have your base and the subsequent customization? All came from Eli Whitney, but most importantly, he was the first advocate of reducing waste in every operational area, not just raw materials management.
Henry Ford gives quite a few insights that are still being
applied in lean six Sigma today.
The next major key players, This is like Dynasty of lean six sigma was the Toyota family. So starting with the daddy sake, Toyota was considered the king of inventors. He invented a steam powered loom which revolutionary revolutionized the textile
He also gave us this idea of a judoka, which is automation with the human touch. This is still prevalent in almost all industries today, where you have this background automation that is triggered by some activity with a human.
He gave us the five wise, which we will discuss more when we get to our root cause. Analysis Modules
and his son Kiichiro Toyoda founded the Toyota Motor Company. So, taking what he learned from Henry Ford,
remember, we're still looking at our post World War Two Japanese recovery, um, and founding this Toyota Motor Company
que Ichiro's major contributions. Elaine and six. Emma, aside from Toyota, was this idea of polka You OK? Which is a mistake proofing So rather than fixing a mistake after happens,
how do we prevent a mistake from happening in the future? And then the last one in the Toyota family of Notre Lien and Six Sigma was E G. Toyota
and his claim to fame was he hired Taichi Ono.
All right, So before we talk about Taichi Ono, we have to talk about jury and the man, Dr Joseph Durant. He went to Japan Post World War Two to
help with the economic recovery. He wrote this Vocal Quality Control handbook in 1951. This is still considered a seminal work when we're talking about manufacturing techniques, operations, management and quality control.
Within that handbook, he gave us these ideas of quality, planning,
quality control and quality improvement. But one of his major takeaways, aside from his knowledge on quality, which then later became Six Sigma was this idea of data driven desert him. One of his most famous quotes was without a standard. There is no logical basis
for making a decision or taking action.
So how do we measure ourselves thus driving action actionable items.
Now let's bounce back to Toyota, and we're talking about the Toyota production system. So Taichi Ono is who we consider to be the father of Lean. He developed the Toyota production system
after visiting an American grocery store where he watched the produce department resupply. When somebody purchased an apple,
he watched the employees come back and replace that apple.
His observations in this grocery store became the Toyota production system, which then later became the lean principles.
The other major thing about the Toyota production system was Shigeo Shingo, So he was a key player because he worked with Taichi Ono to develop TPS. But he
fundamentally changed from that visual management. We watched the apple in the grocery store by applying Taylor's work on scientific management.
So how do we measure employees? How do we maximize employees effectiveness? That was, Shigeo Shing goes contribution taking Taylor's a first efficiency expert knowledge and applying it to more modern day production lines.
So the last major factor when we're talking about the Japanese economic recovery was Dr Demings, So Dr de Mean traveled the World War Two, where he aided him, rebuilding the manufacturing techniques for Japan, so helping them get back on their feet, he collaborated
with Dr Juran to develop this idea of total quality management. So total quality management takes
Duran's core principles of quality planning, control and improvement, and then builds this idea that was fundamentally the first philosophy when it came to quality and
organizations. So what made
Juran Excuse me? What made dumb, you know, quality folk hero was this idea that by improving quality, you can improve the world around you. He lay there later
termed this Demings chain reaction which where you start with improving your quality, which then decreases the cost for the organization, which then you
pay your employees more, hopefully which increases your productivity, which gives you a competitive advantage, which then causes you the organization to stay in business. Remember, his viewpoint was from Japanese economic recovery, which then subsequently creates jobs for the community.
Demming was very highly embraced in Japan because of his focus on creating jobs Post World War two. It's why he's considered a folk hero.
we're finally at six Sigma. So Motorola. This is where six Sigma happened. Dr Harry applied Durant's trilogy and Dominions chain reaction to the motor roller process is to develop a program that he called Six Sigma.
This program is it drew very heavily on Demings work. Excuse me on Duran's work for statistical process, control and dumb means work on culture and philosophy within the organization and management responsibility. The Motorola program is
rumored to have saved approximately $17 billion between 1987 and 2004 when the program was retired. This is what created the lean six Sigma crazes. We understand it today,
so all of that we're talking about six Signal. Where does Lean show up? Lean actually happened in 1990 when um Jim Womack wrote the book The Machine That Changed the World. And what that book was
was the Toyota production system he documented in English what Taichi Ono on Shigeo Shingo had been doing
and converted it from the Toyota production system into this idea of lean principles and lean concepts. And that's how lean the elimination of waste came to be today.
All right, really quickly Check your knowledge, which is the legendary lean six Sigma thinkers, was never officially on Toyota's payroll. It is sake Toyota
Taichi Journal Shigeo Shingo or e g. Toyota.
The correct answer is Shigeo Shingo. While he was heavily involved in the development of the Toyota production system, he was actually a consultant and not a Toyota employees.
So wrapping up reminder. This is not an exhaustive list. This is only people who were heavily influential in the lean Six Sigma phenomenon. And really, if you were to summarize the history of
Lean six Sigma, it would be three aspects. One. The Japanese post World War Two recovery efforts.
Duran and Demming, Production quality. So we're still talking about, um, a little bit of Duran and Demi. We start talking about the Toyota Family and Operations Management. So Frederick Taylor, the Toyota family Doctor Harry and how he applied it to Six Sigma.
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