Operating Systems

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Time
26 hours 10 minutes
Difficulty
Beginner
CEU/CPE
26
Video Transcription
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>> Hello and welcome to this lecture.
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In this lecture, we're going to be covering the topic of
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operating systems so let's go ahead and get started.
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Before we dive into
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the different types of operating systems,
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I want to take a moment to talk about
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what an operating system is.
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If you are viewing this video
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in some type of computerized device,
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whether it's a mobile device,
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or it's a laptop, or a desktop,
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you're likely using an operating system which is running
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the application and is
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communicating between what you are doing,
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whether that's your touch screen or
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your mouse and keyboard, and the hardware,
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the CPU, the hard drive,
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the RAM that is inside of your computer.
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What the operating system
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does is it allows you to interact with
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those components directly via what you see on the screen.
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It allows applications to communicate with
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that hardware through different services
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and processes and things like that.
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It's the base platform
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where all your applications reside.
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The operating system provides a way for
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users to interact with the computer
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through the graphical user interface
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which could be what you see on the pretty screen,
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or through a terminal or a command-line prompt
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which would be like the black box
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with the white coat or the green coat,
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that looks like you're in the matrix,
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that would be the terminal or the command prompt.
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Features of an operating system
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may include: file management,
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which you know that you can add,
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delete, modify files,
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you're capable of running applications
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obviously otherwise you wouldn't be able to view this.
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Handles communication between
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the applications and the hardware
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and it does that by accessing the CPU,
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the hard drive, the RAM in order
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to access files that you're modifying.
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Let's say you have Photoshop open,
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you need to modify a picture,
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make some color adjustments to the photo.
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Well, you're using RAM in order to
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process those changes and you're using
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the hard drive when you decide to
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save it and the operating system is
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what acts as the bridge between
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the application and the hardware inside.
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The input and output support is the last feature.
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Really that's as simple as the clicking
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and clocking of your mouse and keyboard,
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those changes that you're making inside the files,
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and how you interact with the computer
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that is being supported by the operating system.
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Is processing all that information,
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the bits, the ones, and zeros,
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from all those clicking and clocking
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and the computer is
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able to process that and do
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the things that you want it to.
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Diving into the different types of operating systems,
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I want to jump right into the most popular one,
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which is Microsoft Windows.
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Windows has been around forever,
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around the same time that
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all operating systems were established Linux,
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macOS or Apple, Macintosh, and Microsoft Windows.
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They were all established around the same time period,
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but Microsoft Windows really
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focused on the enterprise and end-user.
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They create Windows, Windows 7,
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Windows 8.1, Windows 10,
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Windows Server, these are
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the newer operating systems that you
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will likely be tested on in your exam.
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But if you remember back in the day
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Windows 95, Windows 98,
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Windows 2000, those were
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all other variations of windows that we've been through.
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The advantages with Windows is
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that most applications actually
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run on Windows and
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it's a popular choice for the enterprise.
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The disadvantage is that there's a lot
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of security threats because it's
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such a popular operating system out there.
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Most hackers try to write their malicious scripts
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and programs for this operating system because they
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know that they're likely to get more of response
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back from their malicious scripts
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than they would if they were trying to write for Linux,
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which most people don't use Linux for daily driving,
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they just use that for servers and things like that.
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It is the most popular operating system
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and it has the most security threats,
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you want to make sure that you are
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securing your Windows properly.
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The other disadvantage to Windows is
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that there's a large hardware support.
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That sounds like a good thing because
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you can connect most hardware to it,
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but that can be troublesome because, well,
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not every hardware developer
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is going to maintain the software for it,
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and sometimes that can lead to
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security threats as well so yes,
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most software and hardware do work with Windows
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but that can lead to
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issues too so just keep that in mind.
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Here's a closer picture of what
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Microsoft Windows 10 looks like.
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Moving on, let's talk about macOS.
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Apple macOS is actually the new name,
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it was a Macintosh
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before but macOS is what we call it now.
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It's Apple's proprietary operating system,
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it's running on Mac devices like the iMac,
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MacBook Pro, MacBook Air,
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Mac Pro, that kind of thing.
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The advantage is that it's easy and efficient to use,
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I use macOS I switched over
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from running on Linux, and I love it.
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I think I did that six or
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seven years ago and I have not looked back.
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Most of my friends make fun of me because I
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can't play games, but that's okay.
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I like Apple for what it can
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do and it is efficient, it is easy to use,
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is actually more secure than Windows because, well,
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Apple's more expensive to use,
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and so less people have them than Windows.
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It also only runs on certain hardware,
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it doesn't run on anything and
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everything like Windows and Linux does.
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You have to have the right combination of the right CPU,
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the right type of RAM,
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the right hard drive,
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the right motherboard that thing,
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in order to run the Apple operating system.
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When you do make
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your own because you find the list and you buy
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the products and build your own Mac computer,
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that's called a Hackintosh so that's
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a fun little name for you guys to remember.
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But it is easy and efficient to use,
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there are fewer security concerns
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when you compare it to Windows.
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The disadvantage is that it doesn't only run
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on Apple hardware unless you create your own Hackintosh.
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There are fewer types of software that run on macOS,
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it's not popular for gaming like I said,
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but it's very good for the creative.
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If you work in some development,
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maybe you do web development or something like that,
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there's a lot of really handy tools for Apple,
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and that's what actually helped me make
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that pivot I started in web development and I loved it.
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But it can be pretty expensive
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to get started using an Apple device
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so maybe you could find a friend or a family member
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who has one and doesn't like it
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and buy it off them for a discounted price.
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I usually buy my Apple devices
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used that way it can save a little bit of
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money but still get a good, healthy machine.
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This is what the operating system looks like,
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this is the desktop and right there you can see
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the hardware specs for this particular computer.
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>> Yeah, it's very sleek,
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very well put together, very efficient,
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has a lot of really good applications and there's not
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a lot of security threats to be concerned about.
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Next on our list is Linux. Linux is great.
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I wish a lot of people use Linux more.
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Linux is an open-source-based operating system.
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That means it's free.
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It is Unix-based,
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just like macOS,
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so there's a lot of similarities.
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For instance, both use
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the terminal as opposed to Windows,
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which uses command prompt.
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With Linux you get
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distributions and really with distributions,
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it's a Linux operating system.
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They're all based on Linux,
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but they are built a little bit differently,
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each specific for a purpose.
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Like Red Hat, and Debian,
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and SELinux, those could be
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used for servers and databasing.
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Kali can be used for security or hacking,
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and Ubuntu and Linux Mint
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could be used for your daily driver,
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which could be an alternative to macOS or Windows.
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I have used both. I like them.
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I use Kali every day for work.
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SELinux, for projects that I work on,
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we use SELinux and
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Red Hat and Debian and all those different types.
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As you get into your IT career,
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chances are you will start to
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work with Linux distributions,
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especially when you're dealing with
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web servers and stuff like that.
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This is a picture of what Linux Mint looks like.
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As you can see, it's very sleek.
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It looks a little bit like Windows 10, and it's great.
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It has a lot of open-source software. It's free.
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Everything in there's free.
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The thing that you need to keep in mind is that
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you can't really play games on here.
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Some people say you can and some games do work.
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I have played them, but sometimes you run into issues.
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That's just part of it.
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That's just because it's not
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a popular operating system like Windows,
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but for what it comes with, for what it's worth,
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it's a great operating system and it's
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a great alternative if you want to
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step away from Windows.
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The different types of operating systems are
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32-bit and 64-bit operating systems.
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Really what that means is that it
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depends on what type of
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processor you have in your computer.
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If you have a slower processor or an older processor,
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chances are you can only run
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a 32-bit operating system on it based on the size.
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Based on that operating system or the processor,
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that also determines what type
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of applications you can run.
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Hardware drivers are specific to the OS,
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32-bit is x86,
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or 64-bit is x64.
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A 32-bit operating system cannot run 64-bit apps,
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and a 64-bit operating system can
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run 32-bit apps along with 64-bit apps.
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Really, if you're trying to build
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your own computer and you can't
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determine what type of operating system to get,
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get 64-bit, it's safe,
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that way you can run anything you want.
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That's what I always end up going with.
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Next, I want to talk about
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mobile device operating systems.
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When you are testing for the A Plus Certification,
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you will have a couple of questions on mobile devices.
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That is because mobile devices are starting to take
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over the world. We use them every day.
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A lot of people use them solely as their workstation,
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believe it or not, especially if you're on the go a lot.
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These phones are turning into
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computers that allow you
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do everything that your laptop could do.
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To start off, I want to talk about Android.
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Android is the most popular mobile operating system
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out there. It's owned by Google.
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It's based off of Linux,
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so it's open-source and
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it's supported by a lot of mobile devices globally.
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iPhone, which we'll talk about here in a second.
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iPhone only runs iOS.
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You can't run anything else on it.
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Every other device, whether it's an LG,
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a Samsung, a Google phone,
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whatever, they all usually run on Android.
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There is another operating system out there.
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There's the Microsoft one.
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But really the ones that you need to know about
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are Android and iOS.
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That leads us to the next operating system,
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which is Apple iOS.
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iOS was designed for Apple iPhones and iPads.
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It is Unix-based. Just like Linux,
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Linux is also Unix-based and macOS is Unix-based.
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It is proprietary for Apple devices,
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that means you can't access the source code.
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You can do that with an Android device,
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but you cannot do that with Apple.
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It's only exclusive to Apple devices like I said.
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But you also have fewer security concerns.
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I use an Apple device.
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If you use Mac computer,
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usually Apple devices try to work better together because
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they have really cool features where you
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can share text messages,
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which is in Apple's world is considered iMessage.
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You can share iMessage and if you
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have other family and friends that use iPhones,
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you can have a lot of really cool
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sharing features with them as well.
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The other operating system for
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mobile devices I want to talk about is the Chrome OS,
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which is actually a newer up-and-coming operating system.
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It basically runs off of the Chrome browser.
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If you are familiar with web browsers,
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Chrome is one of them, Firefox is another one,
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Safari, Internet Explorer,
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those are all browsers that you
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can use to access websites.
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This operating system was built solely on
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the Chrome browser itself.
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This is Google's operating system that runs
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on lots of laptops and devices and things like that,
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like tablets and stuff.
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It is based off of Linux,
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so it is considered another Linux distribution.
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Everything in this operating system
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runs in the browser like I said.
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You can access your videos,
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YouTube, Twitter, everything right there.
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But it's phones and like a laptop just
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like you probably are using to watch this course.
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Several manufacturers support Chrome OS.
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People like Acer, Samsung,
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Google themselves have made devices for it,
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and everything is centered in the Cloud.
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When you buy a Chromebook,
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you are buying a device with
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very little scratch disk storage,
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which means that there's very little storage
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unlike the device itself,
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and that's because most of your
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storage of your files and things
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like that are all being stored in the Cloud.
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You're just using this to access the Cloud,
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and you basically need
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Internet access in order to do anything on the device.
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Here's a better look at
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the operating system right there. That's a picture.
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It's a very neat operating system.
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I actually like it.
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I plan to get these for my family members,
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for my kids when they get a little bit older.
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I think it's great for education.
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That's a great way to get into computers.
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I really look forward to seeing where
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this operating system goes in the long run over time.
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That about wraps up this lecture.
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I will see you guys in the next one.
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