Theories of Motivation

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Theories of Motivation: 

Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Developed by Abraham Maslow, this theory states that the needs of people can be arranged in a pyramid and are satisfied based on the level. Once the needs at one level are fulfilled people ascend to a higher level of the pyramid. The lowest level of the pyramid consists of basic needs like food and shelter, moving safety, security, etc. Self-esteem is considered a major motivating factor by this theory.

Motivation-Hygiene Theory: Also known as the two factor theory, it was developed by Fredrick Herzberg. The theory focuses on factors considered as motivators and hygiene. In this theory hygiene factors are adequate pay and supplies. These deter dissatisfaction. Example of motivation factors are learning environments and acquisition of new skills.

Expectancy Theory: Developed by Victor Vroom, this theory is straightforward and based on rewards. According to Vroom’s theory, a team performs best when the it’s acknowledged as high performing, and starts to expect rewards further motivating it to perform.

Achievement Theory: Put forth by David McClelland, this theory outlines three motivating factors: Power, affiliation, and achievement. Waning of any one power can lead to poor performance by the team.

X and Y Theories: The theories were established by Douglas McGregor William and Ouchi. Theory X asserts that people are lazy and need dictatorship. Theory Y acknowledges people as hard workers that do not require constant supervision.

Contingency Theory: The theory was birthed by Fred Fiedler and focuses on situational leadership. The theory is based on interrelations between team members, the task to be completed, and the positional power of the leader that creates a certain outcome.

Situational Leadership:

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