Transaction Processing in Database Management

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Transaction Processing in Database Management:

In database management, transaction management is required to mandate only one user at a time can modify data and that transactions are valid and complete. When more than one user undergoes modification in the database at the same time, which is known as concurrency, controls must applied so that modifications effected by one user do not impact modifications effected by another user. This can be accomplished by data locking.

Locking resolves the issues associated with concurrency and provides successful completion of all transactions. Locking also supports isolation of the transaction, allowing all transactions to run in complete separation from one another, even if multiple transactions can be running at any time. This is called serializability and accomplished by implementing a set of concurrent transactions equivalent to the database state that would be achieved if the set of transactions were executed serially, i.e., in sequential stages. Serialization is an important aspect of processing transactions to ensure data in the database is correct at all times, however many transactions do not always require full isolation. If a transaction is prepared to accept inconsistent data, it’s labeled the isolation level and is the degree to which one transaction must be separated from other transactions. A lower isolation level increases concurrency at the expense of data correctness. Conversely, a higher isolation level ensures that data is correct but can negatively affect concurrency.

If the transaction is processed without any errors while being executed, modifications in the transaction become a permanent part of the database. All transactions that include data alterations will transition to a new point of consistency and become committed or will be rolled back to the original state of consistency. Transactions are not left in an in-between state if the database is not consistent. All transactions must contain a logical unit of work exhibit four properties, called the ACID properties (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability).

These properties dictate that:

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