The Biba and Clark-Wilson Integrity Models

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The Biba and Clark-Wilson Integrity Models:


The Biba model was developed as a direct analogue to the Bell-LaPadula model and is also a state machine model based on a classification lattice with mandatory access controls. It was developed to address three integrity issues:

  1. The prevention of object modification by unauthorized subjects.
  2. The prevention of unauthorized object modification by authorized subjects.
  3. The protection of internal and external object consistency.

In this model there are three axioms:

  1. The Simple Integrity Axiom (SI Axiom), which states that a subject at a specific classification level cannot read data with a lower classification level.
  2. The * Integrity Axiom (* Axiom), which states that a subject at a specific classification level cannot write data to a higher classification level.
  3. A subject at one level of integrity cannot invoke a subject at a higher level of integrity.

The Biba model only acknowledges integrity, not confidentiality or availability. Its main focus is safeguarding objects from outside threats and regards internal threats handled by appropriate programs. Access control management is not acknowledged by the Biba model, and there’s no function that allows modification of an object or subject’s classification level.

In addition, it does not prevent covert channels.

Clark-Wilson Integrity Model:

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