Primary Networking Devices

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Primary Networking Devices:

Hubs and repeaters operate at the physical layer of the OSI model and transfer incoming data to all other ports on the device. These devices don’t read frames or packets; they boost the signal and broadcast to all ports. Repeaters do not interrupt broadcast or collision domains and are considered as protocol transparent because they don’t interact with upper-layer protocols, such as IP, IPX, DECnet, etc.

Bridges and Layer 2 switches operate at the data-link layer of the OSI model. Bridges obtain the MAC layer addresses of each node of the segments and construct a list of MAC addresses and ports, pinpointing which interface a particular MAC is connected to. If an incoming frame does not carry a destination MAC address found on the list, bridges forward the frame to all ports except the originating port from which the frame came. If the destination MAC address is in the registry, bridges send the frame through the port to which the destination MAC address is attached. If the destination MAC address is not on the same port from which the frame came, the bridge filters (drops) the frame. Bridges are hold-and-forward devices. They store the complete incoming frame and ensure the checksum before forwarding the frame. If a checksum error is found, the frame is discarded.

Switches use fast integrated circuits that minimize latency. “Cut-through mode” is when…

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