Methods Used to Bypass Access Control

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Methods Used to Bypass Access Control:

Attackers attempt a range of tactics and schemes to try to bypass or decode access control mechanisms, making access control one of the most vulnerable and targeted security mechanisms.

Password Attacks: Access control on most systems is achieved with a username and password. One of the weaknesses is users lapse with maintaining password security, a habit hackers are well aware of and try to use to seize passwords. Two types of attacks are commonly used: a dictionary attack or a brute-force attack.

Dictionary Attacks: A dictionary attack uses a fixed dictionary file that a program will scan to find a match with a user’s password. Passwords are typically registered in a hashed format. Most password-decoding programs use a method called comparative analysis where all commonly used variations of words in the dictionary file are hashed. The resulting hash it then compared to the encrypted password. If a match is found, the password is decoded. So in the case of passwords that are commonly known, or dictionary-based words, a dictionary attack will crack them pretty quickly.

Brute-Force Attacks: A brute force attack is a unilateral trial of every possible combination of letters, numbers, and symbols in an aggressive ploy to seize passwords for user accounts. Today’s advanced technology lends itself to the success of brute force attacks even with strong passwords, however, the length of the password enhances its protection against brute force attacks because lengthy passwords require more time to decode. Still, most passwords of 14 characters or less can be decoded within 7 days.

One type of brute-force attack uses a rainbow table. In this variation, all possible passwords are pre-computed before an attack is launched. Once it scans all potential passwords, their  corresponding encrypted values are stored in a file called the rainbow table. The encrypted data is then compared to variations stored in the rainbow table and can be cracked in a matter of seconds.

Back Door Attacks:

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