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neler13 | CompTIA A+ | Module 2.4 - Common TCP and UDP

By: neler13 | Related Course: CompTIA A+ | Published: January 11, 2018 | Modified: January 12, 2018
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NotepadComon Protocols

Rules of how things work- Data transfer 

UDP-User Datagram Protocol

Like boxes on a conveyor belt.  Sends chunks on data.  Packets

Header of the packet like an address on a package. Header on the front where this is going to go.

UDP-header is 8 bytes (64 bits).

Sending computer just keeps sending. no error checking.  Receives packets.   Keeps sending the packets. Does not verify the packet got there.  Just wants the packets streaming  Another program that uses UDP is User Datagram Protocol.  Sends in chunks.  Streaming


NotepadNetworking Protocol

-FTP – 21 – TCP 

+ File Transfer Protocol (generic way to transfer files) over  TCP with minimal overhead

TFTP = Trivial File Transfer Protocol

UDP over FTP

-SSH Encryption


NotepadNetworking Protocol

Telnet – 23- remote terminal

SMTP – 25 – TCP

Simple mail Transfer Protocol

Networking Protocols: Telnet, SMPT, POP3 & IMAP

Telnet, SMTP, POP3, & IMAP

Telnet is a “remote terminal connection” protocol that connects a computing system to a remote source.  Telnet runs on port 23, it’s also unsecure and is both a TCP ad UDP protocol, and has generally been replaced with SSH.

This type of transaction is totally transparent, any data is visible and unsecure which is not desired.  It’s used with both TCP and UDP.

Our next group of protocols deals with email transmissions over the network, they are SMTP, POP3, & IMAP and these are all TCP protocols.

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and runs over port 25, runs generally between a dedicate server (think Exchange or mail server) and a computer or other device with email client software as the interface such as Outlook ad even internet based email such as Yahoo, Gmail.

POP3 uses port 110, its stands for Post Office Protocol 3.  POP3 is a protocol that downloads email from the server for email transactions, it’s not a send/receive protocol, it only provides download services to the client computer.  It must be configured to retain emails on the server after download to the client else it deletes them by default.

IMAP uses port 143, it’s a networking protocol for email.  You have server to download to the client and retention of the email and far more robust than is POP3.

For each of these protocols, we map out the entire transaction process to demonstrate how emails are sent, whether or secured, transmitted, and then what happens when they are received on the other end (server + client).

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NotepadNetworking Protocol

DNS – Domain Name Server

DNS – S3-TCP/UDP + FQDN IP

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Networking Protocols: DNS, HTTP & HTTPS

DNS, HTTP & HTTPS

When it comes to domain protocols services, DNS, HTTP and HTTPS (the “s” designates secure) are tools network protocol type services that work in harmony with each other.

DNS runs over port 53 and is both TCP and UDP just to refresh it looks up FQDN and translates to or from its IP address which is language the computer understands.

HTTP, stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It runs over port 80, interprets HTML (hypertext markup language), which defines how web browsers such as IE and Chrome define and communicate with web servers which is all in “clear text.” As we mentioned earlier, clear text means an unsecured transactional environment.

We’ll also explain what’s called a GET command, how it works, how the HTTP language is read and results display the web page visitors see and how the browser interprets the HTML code commands to present content, and other components such as display of images, pointers to interactive resources such as files stored on an FTP server or dialog boxes or web forms requiring input, as well as how navigations points to other locations are controlled within and beyond the web page itself.

HTTPS is Secure HTTP which is a closed, ncrypted, secure environment.  It runs over port 443, we’ll explains how it provides a significantly heightened level of security and what issues can occur that reinforce best practice for keeping security updates and patches current.

 

 

                                                          

 


NotepadNetworking ProtocolsTCP or UDP

Networking Protocols – TCP or UDP

What kind TCP/UDP and Networking Protocols

 

 


NotepadTCP

TCP is Transmission Control Protocol

– header = 20 bytes

– Connection Oriented

– Three way handshake

– Packets stream

– Cares about complete packets

– Error checking on packets


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