Overview

Certification Exam Objectives

CompTIA Linux+ LX0-104

105 Shells, Scripting and Data Management

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment.

  • Set environment variables (e.g., PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell
  • **Write BASH functions for frequently used sequences of commands
  • Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts
  • Set command search path with the proper directory
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • Source
  • /etc/bash.bashrc
  • /etc/profile
  • env
  • export
  • set
  • unset
  • ~/.bash_profile
  • ~/.bash_login
  • ~/.profile
  • ~/.bashrc
  • ~/.bash_logout
  • function
  • alias
  • lists

105.2 Customize or write simple scripts.

  • Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests)
  • Use command substitution
  • Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command
  • Perform conditional mailing to the superuser
  • Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line
  • Manage the location, ownership, execution and SUID rights of scripts
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • for
  • while
  • test
  • if
  • read
  • seq
  • exec

105.3 SQL data management.

  • Use of basic SQL commands -** Perform basic data manipulation**
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • insert
  • update
  • select
  • delete
  • from
  • where
  • group by
  • order by
  • join

106 User Interfaces and Desktops

106.1 Install and configure X11.

  • Verify that the video card and monitor are supported by an X server
  • Awareness of the X font server
  • Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • xhost
  • DISPLAY
  • xwininfo
  • xdpyinfo
  • X

106.2 Set up a display manager.

  • Basic configuration of LightDM
  • Turn the display manager on or off
  • Change the display manager greeting
  • Awareness of XDM, KDM and GDM
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • lightdm
  • /etc/lightdm/

106.3 Accessibility.

  • Basic knowledge of keyboard accessibility settings (AccessX)
  • Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes
  • Basic knowledge of assistive technology (AT)
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • Sticky/repeat keys
  • Slow/bounce/toggle keys
  • Mouse keys
  • High contrast/large
  • print desktop themes
  • Screen reader
  • Braille display
  • Screen magnifier
  • On-screen keyboard
  • Gestures (used at login, for example gdm)
  • Orca
  • GOK
  • Emacspeak

107 Administrative Tasks

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files.

  • Add, modify and remove users and groups
  • Manage user/group info in password/group databases
  • Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/group
  • /etc/skel
  • chage
  • getent
  • groupadd
  • groupdel
  • groupmod
  • passwd
  • useradd
  • userdel
  • usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs.

  • Manage cron and at jobs
  • Configure user access to cron and at services
  • Configure anacron
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/cron.
  • {d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}
  • /etc/at.deny
  • /etc/at.allow
  • /etc/crontab
  • /etc/cron.allow
  • /etc/cron.deny
  • /var/spool/cron/*
  • crontab
  • at
  • atq
  • atrm
  • anacron
  • /etc/anacrontab

107.3 Localization and internationalization.

  • Configure local settings and environment variables
  • Configure timezone settings and environment variables
  • -The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /usr/share/zoneinfo
  • Environment variables:
  • LC_*
  • LC_ALL
  • LANG
  • TZ
  • /usr/bin/locale
  • tzselect
  • tzconfig
  • date
  • iconv
  • UTF-8
  • ISO-8859
  • ASCII
  • Unicode

108 Essential System Services

108.1 Maintain system time.

  • Set the system date and time
  • Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC
  • Configure the correct timezone
  • Basic NTP configuration
  • Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service
  • Awareness of the ntpq command
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /usr/share/zoneinfo
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /etc/ntp.conf
  • date
  • hwclock
  • ntpd
  • ntpdate
  • pool.ntp.org

108.2 System logging.

  • Configuration of the syslog daemon
  • Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions
  • Configuration of logrotate
  • Awareness of rsyslog and syslog-ng
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • syslog.conf
  • syslogd
  • klogd
  • /var/log/
  • logger
  • logrotate
  • /etc/logrotate.conf
  • /etc/logrotate.d/
  • Journalctl
  • /etc/systemd/journald.conf
  • /var/log/journal/

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics.

  • Create email aliases
  • Configure email forwarding
  • Knowledge of commonly available
  • MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, qmail, exim) (no configuration)
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • ~/.forward
  • sendmail emulation layer commands
  • newaliases
  • mail
  • mailq
  • postfix
  • sendmail
  • exim
  • qmail

108.4 Manage printers and printing.

  • Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers)
  • Manage user print queues
  • Troubleshoot general printing problems
  • Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • CUPS configuration files,
  • tools and utilities
  • /etc/cups
  • lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

109 Networking Fundamentals

109.1 Fundamentals of Internet protocols.

  • Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation
  • Knowledge of the differences between private and public
  • “dotted quad” IP addresses
  • Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995)
  • Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP
  • Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6
  • Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/services
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • Subnetting
  • TCP, UDP, ICMP

109.2 Basic network configuration.

  • Manually and automatically configure network interfaces
  • Basic TCP/IP host configuration
  • Setting a default route
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/hostname
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • ifconfig
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • ip
  • route
  • ping

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting.

  • Manually and automatically configure network interfaces and routing tables to include adding, starting, stopping, restarting, deleting or reconfiguring network interfaces
  • Change, view or configure the routing table and correct an improperly set default route manually
  • Debug problems associated with the network configuration
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • ifconfig
  • ip
  • ifup
  • ifdown
  • route
  • host
  • hostname
  • dig
  • netstat
  • ping
  • ping6
  • traceroute
  • traceroute6
  • tracepath
  • tracepath6
  • netcat

109.4 Configure client side DNS.

  • Query remote DNS servers
  • Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers
  • Modify the order in which name resolution is done
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • Host
  • Dig
  • getent

110 Security

110.1 Perform security administration tasks.

  • Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set
  • Set or change user passwords and password aging information
  • Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system
  • Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage
  • Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in
  • Basic sudo configuration and usage
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • find
  • passwd
  • fuser
  • lsof
  • nmap
  • chage
  • netstat
  • sudo
  • /etc/sudoers
  • su
  • usermod
  • ulimit
  • who, w, last

110.2 Set up host security.

  • Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work
  • Turn off network services not in use
  • Understand the role of TCP wrappers
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • /etc/nologin
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/xinetd.d/*
  • /etc/xinetd.conf
  • /etc/inetd.d/*
  • /etc/inetd.conf
  • /etc/inittab
  • /etc/init.d/*
  • /etc/hosts.allow
  • /etc/hosts.deny

110.3 Securing data with encryption.

  • Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage
  • Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys
  • Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation
  • Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels)
  • The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:
  • ssh
  • ssh-keygen
  • ssh-agent
  • ssh-add
  • ~/.ssh/idrsa and idrsa.pub
  • ~/.ssh/iddsa and iddsa.pub
  • /etc/ssh/sshhostrsa_key
  • and sshhostrsa_key.pub
  • /etc/ssh/sshhostdsa_key
  • and sshhostdsa_key.pub
  • ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
  • /etc/sshknownhosts
  • gpg
  • ~/.gnupg/*

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