Exam Objectives

Practice Labs Module
1 hour

The "CompTIA A+" Exam Objectives module covers: Hardware, 1.1,1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15. Networking, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, 2.9. Mobile Devices, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5. Hardware and Network Troubleshooting, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6. Windows Operating Systems, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3..

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CompTIA A+ 220-901


1.1 Given a scenario, configure settings and use BIOS/UEFI tools on a PC.

  • Firmware upgrades/flash BIOS
  • BIOS component information
  • RAM
  • Hard drive
  • Optical drive
  • CPU
  • BIOS configurations
  • Boot sequence
  • Enabling and disabling devices
  • Date/time
  • Clock speeds
  • Virtualization support
  • BIOS security (passwords, drive
  • encryption: TPM, LoJack, secure boot)
  • Built-in diagnostics
  • Monitoring
  • Temperature monitoring
  • Fan speeds
  • Intrusion detection/notification
  • Voltage
  • Clock
  • Bus speed

1.2 Explain the importance of motherboard components, their purpose and properties.

  • Sizes
  • ATX
  • Micro-ATX
  • Mini-ITX
  • ITX
  • Expansion slots
  • PCI
  • PCI-X
  • PCIe
  • miniPCI
  • RAM slots
  • CPU sockets
  • Chipsets
  • Northbridge
  • Southbridge
  • CMOS battery
  • Power connections and types
  • Fan connectors
  • Front/top panel connectors
  • USB
  • Audio
  • Power button
  • Power light
  • Drive activity lights
  • Bus speeds
  • Reset button

1.3 Compare and contrast various RAM types and their features.

  • Types
  • DDR
  • DDR2
  • DDR3
  • DIMM
  • Parity vs. non-parity
  • ECC vs. non-ECC
  • RAM configurations
  • Single channel vs. dual
  • channel vs. triple channel
  • Single sided vs. double sided
  • Buffered vs. unbuffered
  • RAM compatibility

1.4 Install and configure PC expansion cards.

  • Sound cards
  • Video cards
  • Network cards
  • USB cards
  • Firewire cards
  • Thunderbolt cards
  • Storage cards
  • Modem cards
  • Wireless/cellular cards
  • TV tuner cards
  • Video capture cards
  • Riser cards

1.5 Install and configure storage devices and use appropriate media.

  • Optical drives
  • Blu-ray
  • BD-R
  • BD-RE
  • Magnetic hard disk drives
  • 5400 rpm
  • 7200 rpm
  • 10,000 rpm
  • Hot swappable drives
  • Solid state/flash drives
  • Compact flash
  • SD
  • MicroSD
  • MiniSD
  • xD
  • SSD
  • Hybrid
  • eMMC
  • RAID types
  • 0
  • 1
  • 5
  • 10
  • Tape drive
  • Media capacity
  • CD
  • CD-RW
  • DVD-RW
  • DVD
  • Blu-ray
  • Tape
  • DVD DL

1.6 Install various types of CPUs and apply the appropriate cooling methods.

  • Socket types
  • Intel: 775, 1155, 1156, 1366, 1150, 2011
  • AMD: AM3, AM3+, FM1, FM2, FM2+
  • Characteristics
  • Speeds
  • Cores
  • Cache size/type
  • Hyperthreading
  • Virtualization support
  • Architecture (32-bit vs. 64-bit)
  • Integrated GPU
  • Disable execute bit
  • Cooling
  • Heat sink
  • Fans
  • Thermal paste
  • Liquid-based
  • Fanless/passive

1.7 Compare and contrast various PC connection interfaces, their characteristics and purpose.

  • Physical connections
  • USB 1.1 vs. 2.0 vs. 3.0
  • Connector types: A, B, mini, micro
  • Firewire 400 vs. Firewire 800
  • SATA1 vs. SATA2 vs. SATA3, eSATA
  • Other connector types
  • VGA
  • HDMI
  • DVI
  • Audio
  • Analog
  • Digital (Optical connector)
  • RJ-45
  • RJ-11
  • Thunderbolt
  • Wireless connections
  • Bluetooth
  • RF
  • IR
  • NFC
  • Characteristics
  • Analog
  • Digital
  • Distance limitations
  • Data transfer speeds
  • Quality
  • Frequencies

1.8 Install a power supply based on given specifications.

  • Connector types and their voltages
  • SATA
  • Molex
  • 4/8-pin 12v
  • PCIe 6/8-pin
  • 20-pin
  • 24-pin
  • Specifications
  • Wattage
  • Dual rail
  • Size
  • Number of connectors
  • ATX
  • MicroATX
  • Dual voltage options

1.9 Given a scenario, select the appropriate components for a custom PC configuration to meet customer specifications or needs.

  • Graphic/CAD/CAM design workstation
  • Multicore processor
  • High-end video
  • Maximum RAM
  • Audio/video editing workstation
  • Specialized audio and video card
  • Large fast hard drive
  • Dual monitors
  • Virtualization workstation
  • Maximum RAM and CPU cores
  • Gaming PC
  • Multicore processor
  • High-end video/specialized GPU
  • High-definition sound card
  • High-end cooling
  • Home theater PC
  • Surround sound audio
  • HDMI output
  • HTPC compact form factor
  • TV tuner
  • Standard thick client
  • Desktop applications
  • Meets recommended
  • requirements for selected OS
  • Thin client
  • Basic applications
  • Meets minimum requirements
  • for selected OS
  • Network connectivity
  • Home server PC
  • Media streaming
  • File sharing
  • Print sharing
  • Gigabit NIC
  • RAID array

1.10 Compare and contrast types of display devices and their features.

  • Types
  • LCD
  • TN vs. IPS
  • Fluorescent vs. LED backlighting
  • Plasma
  • Projector
  • OLED
  • Refresh/frame rates
  • Resolution
  • Native resolution
  • Brightness/lumens
  • Analog vs. digital
  • Privacy/antiglare filters
  • Multiple displays
  • Aspect ratios
  • 16:9
  • 16:10
  • 4:3

1.11 Identify common PC connector types and associated cables.

  • Display connector types
  • DVI-D
  • DVI-I
  • DVI-A
  • DisplayPort
  • RCA
  • HD15 (i.e., DE15 or DB15)
  • BNC
  • miniHDMI
  • miniDin-6
  • Display cable types
  • HDMI
  • DVI
  • VGA
  • Component
  • Composite
  • Coaxial
  • Device cables and connectors
  • SATA
  • eSATA
  • USB
  • Firewire (IEEE1394)
  • PS/2
  • Audio
  • Adapters and convertors
  • DVI to HDMI
  • USB A to USB B
  • USB to Ethernet
  • DVI to VGA
  • Thunderbolt to DVI
  • PS/2 to USB
  • HDMI to VGA

1.12 Install and configure common peripheral devices.

  • Input devices
  • Mouse
  • Keyboard
  • Scanner
  • Barcode reader
  • Biometric devices
  • Game pads
  • Joysticks
  • Digitizer
  • Motion sensor
  • Touch pads
  • Smart card readers
  • Digital cameras
  • Microphone
  • Webcam
  • Camcorder
  • Output devices
  • Printers
  • Speakers
  • Display devices
  • Input & output devices
  • Touch screen
  • KVM
  • Smart TV
  • Set-top Box
  • MIDI-enabled devices

**1.1 3Install SOHO multifunction device/printers and configure appropriate settings.

  • Use appropriate drivers for a given operating system
  • Configuration settings
  • Duplex
  • Collate
  • Orientation
  • Quality
  • Device sharing
  • Wired
  • USB
  • Serial
  • Ethernet
  • Wireless
  • Bluetooth
  • 802.11 (a/b/g/n/ac)
  • Infrastructure vs. ad hoc
  • Integrated print server (hardware)
  • Cloud printing/remote printing
  • Public/shared devices
  • Sharing local/networked device via operating system settings
  • TCP/Bonjour/AirPrint
  • Data privacy
  • User authentication on the device
  • Hard drive caching

1.14 Compare and contrast differences between the various print technologies and the associated imaging process.

  • Laser
  • Imaging drum, fuser assembly,
  • transfer belt, transfer roller, pickup
  • rollers, separate pads,
  • duplexing assembly
  • Imaging process: processing,
  • charging, exposing, developing,
  • transferring, fusing and cleaning
  • Inkjet
  • Ink cartridge, print head, roller, feeder,
  • duplexing assembly, carriage and belt
  • Calibration
  • Thermal
  • Feed assembly, heating element
  • Special thermal paper
  • Impact
  • Print head, ribbon, tractor feed
  • Impact paper
  • Virtual
  • Print to file
  • Print to PDF
  • Print to XPS
  • Print to image

1.15 Given a scenario, perform appropriate printer maintenance .

  • Laser
  • Replacing toner, applying maintenance kit, calibration, cleaning
  • Thermal
  • Replace paper, clean heating element, remove debris
  • Impact
  • Replace ribbon, replace print head, replace paper
  • Inkjet
  • Clean heads, replace cartridges, calibration, clear jams


2.1 Identify the various types of network cables and connectors.

  • Fiber
  • Connectors: SC, ST and LC
  • Twisted Pair
  • Connectors: RJ-11, RJ-45
  • Wiring standards: T568A, T568B
  • Coaxial
  • Connectors: BNC, F-connector

2.2 Compare and contrast the characteristics of connectors and cabling.

  • Fiber
  • Types (single-mode vs. multi-mode)
  • Speed and transmission limitations
  • Twisted pair
  • Types: STP, UTP, CAT3, CAT5, CAT5e,
  • CAT6, CAT6e, CAT7, plenum, PVC
  • Speed and transmission limitations
  • Splitters and effects on signal quality
  • Coaxial
  • Types: RG-6, RG-59
  • Speed and transmission limitations
  • Splitters and effects on signal quality

2.3 Explain the properties and characteristics of TCP/IP.

  • IPv4 vs. IPv6
  • Public vs. private vs. APIPA/link local
  • Static vs. dynamic
  • Client-side DNS settings
  • Client-side DHCP
  • Subnet mask vs. CIDR
  • Gateway

2.4 Explain common TCP and UDP ports, protocols and their purpose.

  • Ports
  • 21 - FTP
  • 22 - SSH
  • 23 - TELNET
  • 25 - SMTP
  • 53 - DNS
  • 80 - HTTP
  • 110 - POP3
  • 143 - IMAP
  • 443 - HTTPS
  • 3389 - RDP
  • 137-139 - NetBIOS/NetBT
  • 445 - SMB/CIFS
  • 427 - SLP
  • 548 - AFP
  • Protocols
  • DHCP
  • DNS
  • LDAP
  • SNMP
  • SMB
  • CIFS
  • SSH
  • AFP
  • TCP vs. UDP

2.5 Compare and contrast various WiFi networking standards and encryption types.

  • Standards
  • 802.11 (a/b/g/n/ac)
  • Speeds, distances and frequencies
  • Encryption types

2.6 Given a scenario, install and configure SOHO wireless/wired router and apply appropriate settings.

  • Channels
  • Port forwarding, port triggering
  • DHCP (on/off)
  • DMZ
  • Basic QoS
  • Firmware
  • UPnP

2.7 Compare and contrast Internet connection types, network types and their features.

  • Internet connection types
  • Cable
  • DSL
  • Dial-up
  • Fiber
  • Satellite
  • ISDN
  • Cellular
  • Tethering
  • Mobile hotspot
  • Line-of-sight wireless Internet service
  • Network Types
  • LAN
  • WAN
  • PAN
  • MAN

2.8 Compare and contrast network architecture devices, their functions and features.

  • Hub
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Access point
  • Bridge
  • Modem
  • Firewall
  • Patch panel
  • Repeaters/extenders
  • Ethernet over Power
  • Power over Ethernet injector

2.9 Given a scenario, use appropriate networking tools.

  • Crimper
  • Cable stripper
  • Multimeter
  • Tone generator and probe
  • Cable tester
  • Loopback plug
  • Punchdown tool
  • WiFi analyser

Mobile Devices

3.1 Install and configure laptop hardware and components.

  • Expansion options
  • Expresscard /34
  • Expresscard /54
  • Flash
  • Ports/Adapters
  • Thunderbolt
  • DisplayPort
  • USB to RJ-45 dongle
  • USB to WiFi dongle
  • USB to Bluetooth
  • USB Optical Drive
  • Hardware/device replacement
  • Keyboard
  • Hard drive
  • SSD vs. hybrid vs. magnetic disk
  • 1.8in vs. 2.5in
  • Memory
  • Smart card reader
  • Optical drive
  • Wireless card
  • Mini-PCIe
  • Screen
  • DC jack
  • Battery
  • Touchpad
  • Plastics/frames
  • Speaker
  • System board
  • CPU

3.2 Explain the function of components within the display of a laptop.

  • Types
  • LCD
  • TN vs. IPS
  • Fluorescent vs. LED backlighting
  • OLED
  • WiFi antenna connector/placement
  • Webcam
  • Microphone
  • Inverter
  • Digitizer

3.3 Given a scenario, use appropriate laptop features.

  • Special function keys
  • Dual displays
  • Wireless (on/off)
  • Cellular (on/off)
  • Volume settings
  • Screen brightness
  • Bluetooth (on/off)
  • Keyboard backlight
  • Touch pad (on/off)
  • Screen orientation
  • Media options (fast forward/rewind)
  • GPS (on/off)
  • Airplane mode
  • Docking station
  • Physical laptop lock and cable lock
  • Rotating/removable screens

3.4 Explain the characteristics of various types of other mobile devices.

  • Tablets
  • Smartphones
  • Wearable technology devices
  • Smart watches
  • Fitness monitors
  • Glasses and headsets
  • Phablets
  • e-Readers
  • Smart camera
  • GPS

3.5 Compare and contrast accessories and ports of other mobile devices.

  • Connection types
  • NFC
  • Proprietary vendor-specific ports
  • (communication/power)
  • MicroUSB/miniUSB
  • Lightning
  • Bluetooth
  • IR
  • Hotspot/tethering
  • Accessories
  • Headsets
  • Speakers
  • Game pads
  • Docking stations
  • Extra battery packs/battery chargers
  • Protective covers/water proofing
  • Credit card readers
  • Memory/MicroSD

Hardware and Network Troubleshooting

4.1 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common problems related to motherboards, RAM, CPU and power with appropriate tools.

  • Common symptoms
  • Unexpected shutdowns
  • System lockups
  • POST code beeps
  • Blank screen on bootup
  • BIOS time and settings resets
  • Attempts to boot to incorrect device
  • Continuous reboots
  • No power
  • Overheating
  • Loud noise
  • Intermittent device failure
  • Fans spin - no power to other devices
  • Indicator lights
  • Smoke
  • Burning smell
  • Proprietary crash screens
  • (BSOD/pin wheel)
  • Distended capacitors
  • Tools
  • Multimeter
  • Power supply tester
  • Loopback plugs
  • POST card/USB

4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot hard drives and RAID arrays with appropriate tools.

  • Common symptoms
  • Read/write failure
  • Slow performance
  • Loud clicking noise
  • Failure to boot
  • Drive not recognized
  • OS not found
  • RAID not found
  • RAID stops working
  • Proprietary crash screens
  • (BSOD/pin wheel)
  • S.M.A.R.T. errors
  • Tools
  • Screwdriver
  • External enclosures
  • File recovery software
  • Bootrec
  • Diskpart
  • Defragmentation tool

4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common video, projector and display issues.

  • Common symptoms

  • VGA mode

  • No image on screen

  • Overheat shutdown

  • Dead pixels

  • Artifacts

  • Color patterns incorrect

  • Dim image

  • Flickering image

  • Distorted image

  • Distorted geometry

  • Burn-in

  • Oversized images and icons

  • 4.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot wired and wireless networks with appropriate tools.

  • Common symptoms

  • No connectivity

  • APIPA/link local address

  • Limited connectivity

  • Local connectivity

  • Intermittent connectivity

  • IP conflict

  • Slow transfer speeds

  • Low RF signal

  • SSID not found

  • Hardware tools

  • Cable tester

  • Loopback plug

  • Punchdown tools

  • Tone generator and probe

  • Wire strippers

  • Crimper

  • Wireless locator

  • Command line tools

  • PING





  • NET



4.5 Given a scenario, troubleshoot and repair common mobile device issues while adhering to the appropriate procedures.

  • Common symptoms
  • No display
  • Dim display
  • Flickering display
  • Sticking keys
  • Intermittent wireless
  • Battery not charging
  • Ghost cursor/pointer drift
  • No power
  • Num lock indicator lights
  • No wireless connectivity
  • No Bluetooth connectivity
  • Cannot display to external monitor
  • Touchscreen non-responsive
  • Apps not loading
  • Slow performance
  • Unable to decrypt email
  • Extremely short battery life
  • Overheating
  • Frozen system
  • No sound from speakers
  • GPS not functioning
  • Swollen battery
  • Disassembling processes for proper re-assembly
  • Document and label cable
  • and screw locations
  • Organize parts
  • Refer to manufacturer resources
  • Use appropriate hand tools

4.6 Given a scenario, troubleshoot printers with appropriate tools.

  • Common symptoms
  • Streaks
  • Faded prints
  • Ghost images
  • Toner not fused to the paper
  • Creased paper
  • Paper not feeding
  • Paper jam
  • No connectivity
  • Garbled characters on paper
  • Vertical lines on page
  • Backed up print queue
  • Low memory errors
  • Access denied
  • Printer will not print
  • Color prints in wrong print color
  • Unable to install printer
  • Error codes
  • Printing blank pages
  • No image on printer display
  • Tools
  • Maintenance kit
  • Toner vacuum
  • Compressed air
  • Printer spooler

CompTIA A+ 220-902

Windows Operating Systems

1.1 Compare and contrast various features and requirements of Microsoft Operating Systems (Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8.1).


  • 32-bit vs. 64-bit
  • Aero, gadgets, user account control, BitLocker, shadow copy, system restore, ready boost, sidebar, compatibility mode, virtual XP mode, easy transfer, administrative tools, defender, Windows firewall, security center, event viewer, file structure and paths, category view vs. classic view
  • Side-by-side apps, Metro UI, Pinning, One Drive, Windows store, multimonitor task bars, charms, Start Screen, PowerShell, Live sign in, Action Center
  • Upgrade paths - differences between in place upgrades, compatibility tools, Windows upgrade OS advisor

1.2 Given a scenario, install Windows PC operating systems using appropriate methods.

  • Boot methods
  • USB
  • CD-ROM
  • DVD
  • PXE
  • Solid state/flash drives
  • Netboot
  • External/hot swappable drive
  • Internal hard drive (partition)
  • Type of installations
  • Unattended installation
  • Upgrade
  • Clean install
  • Repair installation
  • Multiboot
  • Remote network installation
  • Image deployment
  • Recovery partition
  • Refresh/restore
  • Partitioning
  • Dynamic
  • Basic
  • Primary
  • Extended
  • Logical
  • GPT
  • File system types/formatting
  • exFAT
  • FAT32
  • NTFS
  • CDFS
  • NFS
  • ext3, ext4
  • Quick format vs. full format
  • Load alternate third-party drivers when necessary
  • Workgroup vs. domain setup
  • Time/date/region/language settings
  • Driver installation, software and windows updates
  • Factory recovery partition
  • Properly formatted boot drive with the correct partitions/format

1.3 Given a scenario, apply appropriate Microsoft command line tools.


1.4 Given a scenario, use appropriate Microsoft operating system features and tools.

Administrative Computer management Device manager Local users and groups Local security policy Performance monitor Services System configuration Task scheduler Component services Data sources Print management Windows memory diagnostics Windows firewall Advanced security MSCONFIG General Boot Services Startup Tools Task Manager Applications Processes Performance Networking Users Disk management Drive status Mounting Initializing Extending partitions Splitting partitions Shrink partitions Assigning/changing drive letters Adding drives Adding arrays Storage spaces Other User State Migration tool (USMT) Windows Easy Transfer Windows Upgrade Advisor System utilities REGEDIT COMMAND SERVICES.MSC MMC MSTSC NOTEPAD EXPLORER MSINFO32 DXDIAG DEFRAG System restore Windows Update

1.5 Given a scenario, use Windows Control Panel utilities.

Internet options Connections Security General Privacy Programs Advanced Display/display settings Resolution Color depth Refresh rate User accounts Folder options View hidden files Hide extensions General options View options System Performance (virtual memory) Remote settings System protection Windows firewall Power options Hibernate Power plans Sleep/suspend Standby Programs and features HomeGroup Devices and printers Sound Troubleshooting Network and Sharing Center Device Manager

1.6 Given a scenario, install and configure Windows networking on a client/desktop.

HomeGroup vs. WorkGroup Domain setup Network shares/administrative shares/mapping drives Printer sharing vs. network printer mapping Establish networking connections VPN Dial-ups Wireless Wired WWAN (Cellular) Proxy settings Remote Desktop Connection Remote Assistance Home vs. work vs. public network settings Firewall settings Exceptions Configuration Enabling/disabling Windows firewall Configuring an alternative IP address in Windows IP addressing Subnet mask DNS Gateway Network card properties Half duplex/full duplex/auto Speed Wake-on-LAN QoS BIOS (on-board NIC)

1.7 Perform common preventive maintenance procedures using the appropriate Windows OS tools.

Best practices Scheduled backups Scheduled disk maintenance Windows updates Patch management Driver/firmware updates Antivirus/Anti-malware updates Tools Backup System restore Recovery image Disk maintenance utilities Other Operating Systems and Technologies

2.1 Identify common features and functionality of the Mac OS and Linux operating systems.

Best practices Scheduled backups Scheduled disk maintenance System updates/App Store Patch management Driver/firmware updates Antivirus/anti-malware updates Tools Backup/Time Machine Restore/snapshot Image recovery Disk maintenance utilities Shell/Terminal Screen sharing Force Quit Features Multiple desktops/Mission Control Key Chain Spot Light iCloud Gestures Finder Remote Disc Dock Boot Camp Basic Linux commands ls grep cd shutdown pwd vs. passwd mv cp rm chmod chown iwconfig/ifconfig ps su/sudo apt-get vi dd

2.2 Given a scenario, set up and use client-side virtualization.

Purpose of virtual machines Resource requirements Emulator requirements Security requirements Network requirements Hypervisor

2.3 Identify basic cloud concepts.

SaaS IaaS PaaS Public vs. Private vs. Hybrid vs. Community Rapid Elasticity On-demand Resource pooling Measured service

2.4 Summarize the properties and purpose of services provided by networked hosts.

Server roles Web server File server Print server DHCP server DNS server Proxy server Mail server Authentication server Internet appliance UTM IDS IPS Legacy/embedded systems

2.5 Identify basic features of mobile operating systems.

Android vs. iOS vs. Windows Open source vs. closed source/vendor specific App source (Google Play Store, App Store, and Store) Screen orientation (accelerometer/gyroscope) Screen calibration GPS and geotracking WiFi calling Launcher/GUI Virtual assistant SDK/APK Emergency notification Mobile payment service

2.6 Install and configure basic mobile device network connectivity and email.

Wireless/cellular data network (enable/disable) Hotspot Tethering Airplane mode Bluetooth Enable Bluetooth Enable pairing Find device for pairing Enter appropriate pin code Test connectivity Corporate and ISP email configuration POP3 IMAP Port and SSL settings Exchange, S/MIME Integrated commercial provider email configuration Google/Inbox Yahoo Outlook.com iCloud PRI updates/PRL updates/ Baseband updates Radio firmware IMEI vs. IMSI VPN

2.7 Summarize methods and data related to mobile device synchronization.

Types of data to synchronize Contacts Programs Email Pictures Music Videos Calendar Bookmarks Documents Location data Social media data eBooks Synchronization methods Synchronize to the Cloud Synchronize to the Desktop Mutual authentication for multiple services (SSO) Software requirements to install the application on the PC Connection types to enable synchronization Security

3.1 Identify common security threats and vulnerabilities.

Malware Spyware Viruses Worms Trojans Rootkits Ransomware Phishing Spear phishing Spoofing Social engineering Shoulder surfing Zero-day attack Zombie/botnet Brute forcing Dictionary attacks Non-compliant systems Violations of security best practices Tailgating Man-in-the-middle

3.2 Compare and contrast common prevention methods.

Physical security Lock doors Mantrap Cable locks Securing physical documents/ passwords/shredding Biometrics ID badges Key fobs RFID badge Smart card Tokens Privacy filters Entry control roster Digital security Antivirus/Anti-malware Firewalls User authentication/strong passwords Multifactor authentication Directory permissions VPN DLP Disabling ports Access control lists Smart card Email filtering Trusted/untrusted software sources User education/AUP Principle of least privilege

3.3 Compare and contrast differences of basic Windows OS security settings.

User and groups Administrator Power user Guest Standard user NTFS vs. Share permissions Allow vs. deny Moving vs. copying folders and files File attributes Shared files and folders Administrative shares vs. local shares Permission propagation Inheritance System files and folders User authentication Single sign-on Run as administrator vs. standard user BitLocker BitLocker-To-Go EFS

3.4 Given a scenario, deploy and enforce security best practices to secure a workstation.

Password best practices Setting strong passwords Password expiration Changing default user names/passwords Screensaver required password BIOS/UEFI passwords Requiring passwords Account management Restricting user permissions Login time restrictions Disabling guest account Failed attempts lockout Timeout/screen lock Disable autorun Data encryption Patch/update management

3.5 Compare and contrast various methods for securing mobile devices.

Screen locks Fingerprint lock Face lock Swipe lock Passcode lock Remote wipes Locator applications ? Remote backup applications Failed login attempt restrictions Antivirus/anti-malware Patching/OS updates Biometric authentication Full device encryption Multifactor authentication Authenticator applications Trusted sources vs. untrusted sources Firewalls Policies and procedures BYOD vs. corporate owned Profile security requirements

3.6 Given a scenario, use appropriate data destruction and disposal methods.

Physical destruction Shredder Drill/hammer Electromagnetic (Degaussing) Incineration Certificate of destruction Recycling or repurposing best practices Low level format vs. standard format Overwrite Drive wipe

3.7 Given a scenario, secure SOHO wireless and wired networks.

Wireless specific Changing default SSID Setting encryption Disabling SSID broadcast Antenna and access point placement Radio power levels WPS Change default usernames and passwords Enable MAC filtering Assign static IP addresses Firewall settings Port forwarding/mapping Disabling ports Content filtering/parental controls Update firmware Physical security Software Troubleshooting

4.1 Given a scenario, troubleshoot PC operating system problems with appropriate tools.

Common symptoms Proprietary crash screens (BSOD/pinwheel) Failure to boot Improper shutdown Spontaneous shutdown/restart Device fails to start/detected Missing DLL message Services fails to start Compatibility error Slow system performance Boots to safe mode File fails to open Missing NTLDR Missing boot configuration data Missing operating system Missing graphical interface Missing GRUB/LILO Kernel panic Graphical Interface fails to load Multiple monitor misalignment/orientation Tools BIOS/UEFI SFC Logs System Recovery Options Repair disks Pre-installation environments MSCONFIG DEFRAG REGSRV32 REGEDIT Event viewer Safe mode Command prompt Uninstall/reinstall/repair

4.2 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common PC security issues with appropriate tools and best practices.

Common symptoms Pop-ups Browser redirection Security alerts Slow performance Internet connectivity issues PC/OS lock up Application crash OS updates failures Rogue antivirus Spam Renamed system files Files disappearing File permission changes Hijacked email Responses from users regarding email Automated replies from unknown sent email Access denied Invalid certificate (trusted root CA) Tools Antivirus software Anti-malware software Recovery console Terminal System restore/Snapshot Pre-installation environments Event viewer Refresh/restore MSCONFIG/Safe boot Best practice procedure for malware removal Identify malware symptoms Quarantine infected system Disable system restore (in Windows) Remediate infected systems Update anti-malware software Scan and removal techniques (safe mode, pre-installation environment) Schedule scans and run updates Enable system restore and create restore point (in Windows) Educate end user

4.3 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application issues with appropriate tools.

Common symptoms Dim display Intermittent wireless No wireless connectivity No Bluetooth connectivity Cannot broadcast to external monitor Touchscreen non-responsive Apps not loading Slow performance Unable to decrypt email Extremely short battery life Overheating Frozen system No sound from speakers Inaccurate touch screen response System lockout Tools Hard reset Soft reset Close running applications Reset to factory default Adjust configurations/settings Uninstall/reinstall apps Force stop

4.4 Given a scenario, troubleshoot common mobile OS and application security issues with appropriate tools.

Common symptoms Signal drop/weak signal Power drain Slow data speeds Unintended WiFi connection Unintended Bluetooth pairing Leaked personal files/data Data transmission overlimit Unauthorized account access Unauthorized root access Unauthorized location tracking Unauthorized camera/ microphone activation High resource utilization Tools Anti-malware App scanner Factory reset/clean install Uninstall/reinstall apps WiFi analyzer Force stop Cell tower analyzer Backup/restore iTunes/iCloud/Apple Configurator Google Sync One Drive Operational Procedures

5.1 Given a scenario, use appropriate safety procedures.

Equipment grounding Proper component handling and storage Antistatic bags ESD straps ESD mats Self-grounding Toxic waste handling Batteries Toner CRT Personal safety Disconnect power before repairing PC Remove jewelry Lifting techniques Weight limitations Electrical fire safety Cable management Safety goggles Air filter mask Compliance with local government regulations

5.2 Given a scenario with potential environmental impacts, apply the appropriate controls.

MSDS documentation for handling and disposal Temperature, humidity level awareness and proper ventilation Power surges, brownouts, blackouts Battery backup Surge suppressor Protection from airborne particles Enclosures Air filters/mask Dust and debris Compressed air Vacuums Compliance to local government regulations

5.3 Summarize the process of addressing prohibited content/activity, and explain privacy, licensing and policy concepts.

Incident Response First response Identify Report through proper channels Data/device preservation Use of documentation/ documentation changes Chain of custody Tracking of evidence/ documenting process Licensing/DRM/EULA Open source vs. commercial license Personal license vs. enterprise licenses Personally Identifiable Information Follow corporate end-user policies and security best practices

5.4 Demonstrate proper communication techniques and professionalism.

Use proper language - avoid jargon, acronyms and slang when applicable Maintain a positive attitude/project confidence Actively listen (taking notes) and avoid interrupting the customer Be culturally sensitive Use appropriate professional titles, when applicable Be on time (if late contact the customer) Avoid distractions Personal calls Texting/social media sites Talking to co-workers while interacting with customers Personal interruptions Dealing with difficult customer or situation Do not argue with customers and/or be defensive Avoid dismissing customer problems Avoid being judgmental Clarify customer statements (ask open-ended questions to narrow the scope of the problem, restate the issue or question to verify understanding) Do not disclose experiences via social media outlets Set and meet expectations/timeline and communicate status with the customer Offer different repair/ replacement options if applicable Provide proper documentation on the services provided Follow up with customer/user at a later date to verify satisfaction Deal appropriately with customers confidential and private materials Located on a computer, desktop, printer, etc.

5.5 Given a scenario, explain the troubleshooting theory.

Always consider corporate policies, procedures and impacts before implementing changes. Identify the problem Question the user and identify user changes to computer and perform backups before making changes Establish a theory of probable cause (question the obvious) If necessary, conduct external or internal research based on symptoms Test the theory to determine cause Once theory is confirmed, determine next steps to resolve problem If theory is not confirmed, re-establish new theory or escalate Establish a plan of action to resolve the problem and implement the solution Verify full system functionality and if applicable implement preventive measures Document findings, actions and outcomes

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