Networking Part 7: Antenna Types, MIMO, Wireless Standards, Technologies & Compatibility

December 30, 2018 | Views: 4547

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­Networking Part 7

Antenna Types, MIMO, Wireless Standards & Technologies, Compatibility

Antenna Types
Transmitting radio waves through electric components
An antenna is an electrical component made for sending and receiving radio signals. They convert electronic signals into electromagnetic waves and vice
versa. Sometimes we need to turn down different signal antenna/gains so they don’t overlap other areas and create interference for other networks.

Omnidirectional antenna:
sending a signal that is equal in every direction
An Omnidirectional antenna radiates and intercepts radio frequencies in all directions around like a circle. Used in small homes, small business and rather simple places. It needs to be set somewhere central and high in location.

Unidirectional antenna:
focused signal in one particular direction
An Unidirectional antenna covers a particular angle at an enviroment- “only hits that hallway or that corner”. It is useful for connecting two access points and acts as a «bridge» by sending the signal towards next antenna. It allows us to push wireless signal more concentrated and further without losing strength and interference.

Multiple Input Multiple Output

Antennas that can sends & receive simultaneously

MIMO is a radio communications technology that provides increased link capacity and spectral efficiency combined with improved link reliability. It uses multiple antennas to enable a variety of signal paths to carry the data.

>802.11 n is the wireless standard that uses MIMO
>2×2, 3×3 (2 recieving 2 sending | 3 recieving 3 sending)


Wireless Standards

Wireless ways of the frequencies to send our information on, speed, reach, frequency
In 1997,
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) created the first WLAN standard. They called it 802.11 after the name of the group formed to oversee its development. Unfortunately, 802.11 only support a maximum bandwidth of 2Mbps which was too slow for most applications. However, after a while they created newer versions and it branched into many different technologies and standards.

IEEE 802.11 b
>2.4 GHz
>140 meter reach

>also referred to as Wi-Fi 1

IEEE 802.11 a
54 Mbps
>5 GHz
>120 meter reach

>also referred to as Wi-Fi 2

IEEE 802.11 g
54 Mbps
>2.4 GHz
>140 meter reach

>Runs with standard 802.11 b if the Wireless AP is compatible

>support by all wireless devices today

>also referred to as Wi-Fi 3

IEEE 802.11 n
300Mbps (channel bonding)
>2.4/5 GHz which runs with all other WAPs
>250 meter reach

>also referred to as Wi-Fi 4


IEEE 802.11 ac

1300 Mbps (5 GHz)

450 Mbps (2.4 GHz)

>fastest maximum speed and best signal range

>also referred to as Wi-Fi 5



The ability to use wireless standards together
The compatibility is determined by our NIC and WAP. Specific 802.11 Standards have the possibility to be compatible with each other. The devices that talk together have to support the same standards or else they won’t be able to talk and communicate. When using different standards, our speed is determined by our lowest standard because it’s the «weakest link» in our system.
• A/N
>All of them has to run on 5GHz -6 GHz to be compatible
• B/G/N
>All of them already run on 2.4 GHz and makes them compatible

Wireless Technologies (For WAN)

Bluetooth, satellite, television and other ways of pushing data through

-Need to install satellite towers for connection
-Can have wide stream and alot of data being pushed at once
-May seem slow because of the latency

-worldwide interoperability microwave access
-Uses IEEE 802.1b
-Also known as Broadband Metropolitan Wireless
-up to 31 miles


-Radio cell towers are placed in a hexagonal cell pattern to supply radio service
-Internet to cellphone
-Can also initialize Mobile hotspot

2G / GSM – Up to 38Kbps

GPRS – Up to 171Kbps
3G – Up to 14Mbps
HSPA+ High speed packet Access – Up to 168Mbps
4G – Up to 1000Mbps



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