# Introduction to Cryptography

June 17, 2015 | Views: 7274

#### What is cryptography?

Cryptography derives its name from the Greek word “Kryptos,” which means “Hidden Secrets.” Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. It’s the Art or Science of converting a plain intelligible data into unintelligible data and again re-transforming that message into its original form. It provides: Confidentiality, Integrity, Accuracy.

#### Encryption

The process of converting plain text into an unintelligible format (cipher text) is called Encryption.

#### Decryption

The process of converting cipher text into a plain text is called Decryption.

#### What’s Key?

In cryptography, a key is a variable value that is applied using an algorithm to a string or block of unencrypted text to produce encrypted text, or to decrypt encrypted text. The length of the key is a factor in considering how difficult it will be to decrypt the text in a given message.

#### What is a Block Cipher?

A method of encrypting / decrypting data

Key is used for encryption / decryption.

Same size of I/P and O/P

#### What is Initialization Vector?

An initialization vector (IV) is an arbitrary number that can be used along with a secret key for data encryption.

It is a group of hex values.

#### Types of Cryptography

1. Symmetric Key Cryptography (Secret Key Cryptography)

2. Asymmetric Key Cryptography (Public Key Cryptography)

3. HASH FUNCTION

1. Symmetric Key Cryptography (Secret Key Cryptography)

a). Same Key is used by both parties

b). Simpler and Faster

2. Asymmetric Key Cryptography (Public Key Cryptography)

a). Two  different keys are used  Users get the Key from an Certificate Authority.

b). Authentication in asymmetric cryptography is more secured but the process is relatively more complex as the certificate has to be obtained from certification authority.

3. HASH FUNCTION

a). Uses mathematical transformation to irreversibly  encrypt information.

b). It is a one-way encryption

c). Uses no key for encryption and decryption

Image credit: @infosectdk

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1. As a beginner, I find the topic very interesting.

2. In the introductory paragraph, I think the concepts of “confidentiality”, “integrity” and “accuracy” should be explained. Also, I think it would make sense to add “authenticity” and “non-repudiation”.

BTW, what do you mean by “accuracy”, granted I’m not an expert but I never came across this particular term in related literature.

3. ciphertext:
ciphertext is the encrypted result

4. super

5. One addition: hashes can use a ‘salt’ to make sure that the input of the hash function does not always lead to tbe same output.

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