Comptia CASP Notes – Module 7 (Final)

December 19, 2016 | Views: 3206

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Technical Integration of Enterprise Components
MODULE 7: Host & Application Security

Security Controls for Hosts

Trusted OS – provides sufficient support for multilevel security & evidence of correctness to meet a particular set of standards

  • CC (Common Criteria) – international standard created to rate OS for level of security using “evaluation levels”

    • EAL1: Functionally tested

    • EAL2: Structurally tested

    • EAL3: Methodically tested & checked

    • EAL4: Methodically designed, tested, & reviewed

    • EAL5: Semi-formally designed & tested

    • EAL6: Semi-formally verified design & tested

    • EAL7: Formally verified design & tested

Patch Management

  • Hot fixes: should be applied immediately to solve a security issue (if relevant to system)

  • Updates: issues with functionality are solved

  • Service packs: roll-up of all updates & hotfixes since OS release

DLP (Data Loss Prevention) – attempts to prevent data leakage through either a network or endpoint DLP

Host-Based Firewalls

  • Iptables are a common HBF which uses rules like a firewall

    • iptables -A INPUT -i eth1 -s -j DROP

    • iptables -A INPUT – eth1 -s -j DROP

    • iptables -A INPUT -eth1 -s 178. -j DROP

  • Windows Firewall – GUI interface already present in system, must be configured

Host Hardening – reduce attack surface of a device

  • Remove any unnecessary applications, services, accounts, ports

  • When possible use GPOs (Group Policies) as well as standard images ‘baseline systems/settings’

  • Restrict access to Admin consoles, restrict command shell access

  • Configure & secure all management interfaces

  • Restrict peripheral i.e USB ports disabled or restricted, removable devices, Bios, FireWire

  • Use MDM (mobile device management) solutions to secure these devices

  • Use boot loader protections

  • Measured launch – software & platform components have been identified using cryptographic means

    • IMA (Integrity Measurement Architecture) – attempts to measure the runtime environment

Full Disk Encryption

  • EK (Endorsement key): contains public/private key pair installed in persistent memory

  • SRK (Storage root key): Persistent memory that stores keys in the TPM (trusted platform module)

  • AIK (Attestation identity key): versatile memory that ensures integrity of the EK.

  • PCR (Platform configuration register): stores data hashes for the sealing function

  • Storage Keys: memory that contains the keys used to encrypt storage

VM Escape – exploit where vm map ‘escape’ and are able to access other VMs

VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) – desktop OS contained in a virtual environment on a centralized server

VTPM (virtual trusted platform module – enables trusted computing on VMs on a single hardware platform using a software object that acts like a physical TPM.

Application Vulnerabilities and Security Controls

Specific Application Issues

  • Insecure Direct Object References – the application doesn’t verify that a user is authorized for the object

  • XSS (Cross-site scripting) – attacker injects malicious code into a web application after finding vulnerability

  • CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery) – attack that causes the end user to execute unwanted actions on a web application that she is currently authenticated by exploiting the website’s trust of the browser

  • Click-jack attack – transparent frame or page crafted over a legitimate looking page to entice the user

  • Session hijacking – user authenticating to website then hijacked by attacker

  • Input Validation – checking input for things such as proper format & length. Length should be checked and validators used to check either blacklisting or whitelisting characters or patterns

  • SQL Injection – Attack that injects a SQL query as input data from the client application. To prevent use proper input validation, prepared statements, & blacklisting or whitelisting of characters.

  • Buffer Overflow – occurs when the amount of data that is submitted is larger than the buffer can handle. Applications should be properly tested for overflow conditions,  input validation is a must.

  • Memory Leaks – memory is exhausted when all allocated memory is not returned to the OS

  • Integer Overflows – Math operations tyr to create a value that is too large for the available space

  • Race Conditions – Hacker inserts between instructions, introduces changes & alters the order of execution

  • TOCTOU (Time of Check/Time of Use) – a system is changed between a condition check and the display of the check’s results

  • Resource Exhaustion – goal of DoS/DDoS attacks

Industry Accepted Approaches

  • WASC (Web Application Security Consortium) – Organization that provides best practices for web-based applications

  • OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) – Group that monitors attacks, specifically web attacks

  • BSI (Build Security In/Initiative) – promotes a process agnostic approach that makes security recommendations

  • ISO/IEC 2700 – Standards that provide guidance to organizations in integrating security into the development and maintenance of software applications.

  • WS-Security (WebServices Security) – extension to SOAP used to apply security to web services

    • How to sign SOAP msgs to ensure integrity

    • How to encrypt SOAP msgs to ensure confidentiality

    • How to attach security tokens to ascertain the sender’s identity

Software Development Methods

  • Waterfall – breaks up software development into distinct phases: Idea → Analysis → Design → Development → Test

  • V-Shaped -similar to waterfall but verification and validation is performed at each step

  • Spiral – iterative approach that places more emphasis on risk analysis at each stage

  • RAD (Rapid Application Development) – less time spent upfront based on trial & error to produce a prototype

  • Agile – attempts to be nimble to react to situations as they arise and take advantage of lessons learned in later phases

  • JAD – (Joint Analysis or Application Development) – uses team approach

Monitoring Mechanisms

  • WAF (Web Application Firewall) – applies rule sets to HTTP conversations

  • DAM (Database Activity Monitoring) – monitors transactions and the activity of DB services.

Client-Side Vs Server Side Process

  • Client-Side – The client makes a request, it is retrieved from the server and execution is performed in the client browser

  • Server-Side – all processing happens on the server


  • REST (Representational State Transfer) – client/server model for interacting with content on remote systems, mainly using HTTP

  • JSON – simple text-based message format often used with REST web services

    • Advantages over SOAP/XML – smaller in size, more efficient, provides improved response times (uses cache), easier to design and implement

Browser Extensions

  • Active X – Server Side MS tech that uses OOP (object-oriented programming) and is based on COM (Component Object Model) & DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model

  • Java applet- server-side component created using Java that runs in the browser and is platform independent

  • Flash – Client-side program used to create content that is played in the Adobe Flash Player

SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) – protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services.

AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (client-side) – group of interrelated web development techniques used to create asynchronous web applications

Host, Storage, Network, & Application Integration

Interoperability Issues

  • Implement in a protected network or DMZ

  • Limit access to Admins, virtualize if possible

  • Use ACLs and use the highest level of encryption and authentication

  • For Windows Applications, try compatibility mode

There are vulnerabilities associated with Cloud & Virtual Models

  • Weak Access between VMs | Physical server resource depletion

  • Server crash or compromise affects all VMs on that physical server

  • Host to Host attacks may be possible with compromise of platform

  • If single platform is used all systems are vulnerable to the same attack

  • Ensure data in multi-tenant solution is isolated from other tenants’ data.

Storage Security Considerations

  • Limit physical access

  • Manage the storage solution on a private network

  • Implement ACLs for all data, paths, subnets & networks (at the port level if possible)

  • Use multi-factor authentication

Enterprise Application Integration Enablers

  • CRM (Customer Relationship Management) – deploy a VPN if remote access is required

  • ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) – should be deployed in a DMZ

  • GRC (Governance, Risk, & Compliance) – Access should be tightly controlled

  • ESB (Enterprise Service Bus) designs and implements communication between mutually interacting software application in a service-oriented architecture

  • SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) – uses software pieces to provide application functionality as services to other applications

  • Directory Services – Stores, organizes, and provides access to information in a computer operating system’s directory

  • DNS (Domain Name System)

    • Enable DNSSEC (Domain Name System Security Extensions)

    • Configure internal DNS servers to communicate only with root servers

    • Use a longer TTL so the resource record is read less frequently to lessen possibility of poisoning

  • CMDB (Configuration Management DataBase) – Keeps track of the state of assets, and the relationships between them

  • CMS ( Content Management System) – publishes, edits, modifies, organizes, deletes, and maintains content from a central interface. Maintains versioning while allowing teams to work together.

Good Luck on the Exam!

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  1. Good Job 😉

  2. Thanks Bro

  3. WHere I Found other notes of previus modules

  4. Good job and a nice series!

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